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Significance and Use
Ambient marine waters generally contain very low concentrations of toxic metals that require sensitive analytical methods, such as ICP-MS, to detect and measure the metal's concentrations.
Due to the high dissolved salt concentrations present in seawater, sample pretreatment is required to remove signal suppression and significant polyatomic interferences due to the matrix both of which compromise detection limits.
1.1 Toxic elements may be present in ambient waters and may enter the food chain via uptake by plants and animals; the actual concentrations of toxic metals are usually sub-ng/mL. The U.S. EPA has published its Water Quality Standards in the U.S. Federal Register 40 CFR 131.36, Minimum requirements for water quality standards submission, Ch. I (7-1-00 Edition), see Annex, Table A1.1. The U.S. EPA has also developed Method 1640 to meet these requirements, see Annex, Table A1.2.
1.2 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) is a technique with sufficient sensitivity to routinely measure toxic elements in ambient waters, both fresh and saline (Test Method D5673). However saline and hard water matrices pose analytical challenges for direct multielement analysis by ICP-MS at the required sub-ng/mL levels.
1.3 This standard practice describes a method used to prepare water samples for subsequent multielement analysis using ICP-MS. The practice is applicable to seawater and fresh water matrices, which may be filtered or digested. Samples prepared by this method have been analyzed by ICP-MS for the elements listed in Annex, Table A1.3).
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D5673 Test Method for Elements in Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma--Mass Spectrometry
D5810 Guide for Spiking into Aqueous Samples
D5847 Practice for Writing Quality Control Specifications for Standard Test Methods for Water Analysis
ICS Number Code 13.060.45 (Examination of water in general)