This guide covers the selection and use of procedures for testing exterior wood stains. This includes both water borne and solvent borne semitransparent and opaque stains. The different conditions that affect coatings are presented in details. The balance of properties must be considered when establishing the requirements and selecting the tests. The different test methods in determining the liquid coating properties are enumerated and discussed. The different methods in determining the coating application and film formation are presented and discussed in details. The different test methods of determining the appearance of dry films are presented. The different test method of determining the dry coating properties are presented in details. The different test methods and practices in performing the chemical analysis of exterior woods are presented in details. Although many of the recommended test methods attempt to simulate conditions under which coatings are applied and used, it is not possible to duplicate accurately all possible conditions. Testing materials, including appropriate controls, under field conditions is recommended for the final evaluation of suitability.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This guide covers the selection and use of procedures for testing exterior wood stains and clear water repellents. This includes both water borne and solvent borne semitransparent and opaque stains and clear water repellents. The properties that can be examined or, in some cases, the relevant test procedures are listed in 2.1 and 2.2.
Note 1—The term “opaque stain” is defined as a pigmented composition intended for use on wooden surfaces to produce a uniform finish that obscures the grain and color of the wood, but not its surface texture; also called solid color or solid hide.
Note 2—The term “semitransparent” is defined as a pigmented composition intended for use on wooden surfaces to produce a uniform finish that does not fully obscure the grain or the texture of the wood.
Note 3—The term “clear” is defined as a transparent composition intended for use on wooden surfaces to produce a uniform finish that does not obscure the grain or texture of the wood.
1.1.1 DiscussionWhen applied to woods that differ in color, there is a color difference between stained substrates.
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D16 Terminology for Paint, Related Coatings, Materials, and Applications
D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
D154 Guide for Testing Varnishes
D185 Test Methods for Coarse Particles in Pigments
D215 Practice for the Chemical Analysis of White Linseed Oil Paints
D344 Test Method for Relative Hiding Power of Paints by the Visual Evaluation of Brushouts
D358 Specification for Wood to Be Used as Panels in Weathering Tests of Coatings
D522 Test Methods for Mandrel Bend Test of Attached Organic Coatings
D523 Test Method for Specular Gloss
D562 Test Method for Consistency of Paints Measuring Krebs Unit (KU) Viscosity Using a Stormer-Type Viscometer
D660 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Checking of Exterior Paints
D661 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Cracking of Exterior Paints
D662 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Erosion of Exterior Paints
D714 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Blistering of Paints
D772 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Flaking (Scaling) of Exterior Paints
D869 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Settling of Paint
D968 Test Methods for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by Falling Abrasive
D1006 Practice for Conducting Exterior Exposure Tests of Paints on Wood
D1038 Terminology Relating to Veneer and Plywood
D1210 Test Method for Fineness of Dispersion of Pigment-Vehicle Systems by Hegman-Type Gage
D1296 Test Method for Odor of Volatile Solvents and Diluents
D1475 Test Method For Density of Liquid Coatings, Inks, and Related Products
D1554 Terminology Relating to Wood-Base Fiber and Particle Panel Materials
D1640 Test Methods for Drying, Curing, or Film Formation of Organic Coatings at Room Temperature
D1729 Practice for Visual Appraisal of Colors and Color Differences of Diffusely-Illuminated Opaque Materials
D1849 Test Method for Package Stability of Paint
D2196 Test Methods for Rheological Properties of Non-Newtonian Materials by Rotational (Brookfield type) Viscometer
D2197 Test Method for Adhesion of Organic Coatings by Scrape Adhesion
D2243 Test Method for Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Water-Borne Coatings
D2244 Practice for Calculation of Color Tolerances and Color Differences from Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates
D2245 Test Method for Identification of Oils and Oil Acids in Solvent-Reducible Paints
D2369 Test Method for Volatile Content of Coatings
D2370 Test Method for Tensile Properties of Organic Coatings
D2371 Test Method for Pigment Content of Solvent-Reducible Paints
D2372 Practice for Separation of Vehicle From Solvent-Reducible Paints
D2486 Test Methods for Scrub Resistance of Wall Paints
D2574 Test Method for Resistance of Emulsion Paints in the Container to Attack by Microorganisms
D2621 Test Method for Infrared Identification of Vehicle Solids From Solvent-Reducible Paints
D2697 Test Method for Volume Nonvolatile Matter in Clear or Pigmented Coatings
D2805 Test Method for Hiding Power of Paints by Reflectometry
D3168 Practice for Qualitative Identification of Polymers in Emulsion Paints
D3273 Test Method for Resistance to Growth of Mold on the Surface of Interior Coatings in an Environmental Chamber
D3274 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Surface Disfigurement of Paint Films by Fungal or Algal Growth, or Soil and Dirt Accumulation
D3278 Test Methods for Flash Point of Liquids by Small Scale Closed-Cup Apparatus
D3359 Test Methods for Measuring Adhesion by Tape Test
D3456 Practice for Determining by Exterior Exposure Tests the Susceptibility of Paint Films to Microbiological Attack
D3719 Test Method for Quantifying Dirt Collection on Coated Exterior Panels
D3723 Test Method for Pigment Content of Water-Emulsion Paints by Low-Temperature Ashing
D3793 Test Method for Low-Temperature Coalescence of Latex Paint Films by Porosity Measurement
D3925 Practice for Sampling Liquid Paints and Related Pigmented Coatings
D3928 Test Method for Evaluation of Gloss or Sheen Uniformity
D3960 Practice for Determining Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content of Paints and Related Coatings
D4017 Test Method for Water in Paints and Paint Materials by Karl Fischer Method
D4060 Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by the Taber Abraser
D4062 Test Method for Leveling of Paints by Draw-Down Method
D4141 Practice for Conducting Black Box and Solar Concentrating Exposures of Coatings
D4212 Test Method for Viscosity by Dip-Type Viscosity Cups
D4214 Test Methods for Evaluating the Degree of Chalking of Exterior Paint Films
D4287 Test Method for High-Shear Viscosity Using a Cone/Plate Viscometer
D4400 Test Method for Sag Resistance of Paints Using a Multinotch Applicator
D4446 Test Method for Anti-Swelling Effectiveness of Water-Repellent Formulations and Differential Swelling of Untreated Wood When Exposed to Liquid Water Environments
D4585 Practice for Testing Water Resistance of Coatings Using Controlled Condensation
D4587 Practice for Fluorescent UV-Condensation Exposures of Paint and Related Coatings
D4958 Test Method for Comparison of the Brush Drag of Latex Paints
D5326 Test Method for Color Development in Tinted Latex Paints
D5401 Test Method for Evaluating Clear Water Repellent Coatings on Wood
D6686 Test Method for Evaluation of Tannin Stain Resistance of Coatings
D6695 Practice for Xenon-Arc Exposures of Paint and Related Coatings
E70 Test Method for pH of Aqueous Solutions With the Glass Electrode
E105 Practice for Probability Sampling of Materials
E313 Practice for Calculating Yellowness and Whiteness Indices from Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates
E1347 Test Method for Color and Color-Difference Measurement by Tristimulus Colorimetry
G90 Practice for Performing Accelerated Outdoor Weathering of Nonmetallic Materials Using Concentrated Natural Sunlight
U.S. Federal Standards
6301 Wet Adhesion (Tape Test)
clear water repellents; exterior wood stains; Coatings (paint/related applications); Exterior wood stains; Liquid coatings (applications/testing); Solventborne paints/coatings; Waterborne coatings;
ICS Number Code 79.040 (Wood, sawlogs and sawn timber)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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