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Significance and Use
Operating experience of gas turbines and diesel engines has shown that some of the ash-forming substances present in a fuel can lead to high temperature corrosion, ash deposition, and fuel system fouling. Ash-forming materials may be in a fuel as oil-soluble metallo-organic compounds as water-soluble salts or as solid foreign contamination. Their presence and concentration varies with the geographical source of a crude oil and they are concentrated in the residual fractions during the refining process. Although distillate fuel oils are typically contaminant free, ash-forming materials may be introduced later in the form of salt-bearing water or by contact with other petroleum products during transportation and storage. Specifications of gas turbine and diesel engine fuels and the significance of contamination and trace metals are detailed in Specifications D2880 and D975.
Pre-conditioning of the fuel before it reaches the gas turbine or diesel engine has become a prerequisite for installations that use heavy petroleum fuel, and also for sites that use light distillate fuel oils. On-site fuel analysis to determine the extent of contamination is an integral part of a fuel quality management program. It is used first to determine the extent of the required treatment, and later, the effectiveness of the treatment. It starts with the delivery of the fuel, continues throughout fuel handling and ends only as the fuel is injected into the turbine or engine.
Fuel contamination specifications vary among the different gas turbine manufacturers. However, without exception, each requires that contaminants must be as low as possible. In most power generation installations, it is the owner who has the responsibility of verifying fuel cleanliness in compliance with the turbine manufacturer's warranty specifications. This leads to an on-site analytical instrument performance requirement of below 1.0 mg/kg for several elements.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of contaminants and materials as a result of corrosion in gas turbine or diesel engine fuels by rotating disc electrode atomic emission spectroscopy (RDE-AES).
1.1.1 The test method is applicable to ASTM Grades 0-GT, 1-GT, 2-GT, 3-GT, and 4-GT gas turbine fuels and Grades Low Sulfur No. 1-D, Low Sulfur No. 2-D, No. 1-D, No. 2-D, and No. 4-D diesel fuel oils.
1.1.2 This test method provides a rapid at-site determination of contamination and corrosive elements ranging from fractions of mg/kg to hundreds of mg/kg in gas turbine and diesel engine fuels so the fuel quality and level of required treatment can be determined.
1.1.3 This test method uses oil-soluble metals for calibration and does not purport to quantitatively determine or detect insoluble particles.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. The preferred units are mg/kg (ppm by mass).
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils
D2880 Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D6299 Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
UNSPSC Code 15121527(Turbine oil); 15101505(Diesel fuel)