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Significance and Use
A bailer is a device for obtaining a sample from stratified or un-stratified waters and liquid wastes. The most common use of a bailer is for sampling ground water from single-screened wells (Fig. 1) and well clusters (see Guide D4448).
This practice is applicable to sampling water and liquid wastes. The sampling procedure will depend on sampling plan and the data quality objectives (DQOs) (Practice D5792).
Bailers may be used to purge ground water wells prior to sampling, but bailers are poor devices for removing large volumes of water.
Bailers may be used to sample waters and liquid wastes in underground and above ground tanks and surface impoundments. However, the design of the unit and associated piping should be well understood so that the bailer can access the desired compartment and depth. Any stratification of the liquid should be identified prior to sampling.
Note 1—Viscous liquids and suspended solids may interfere with a bailer's designed operation.
Bailers do not subject the sample to pressure extremes. Bailing does disturb the water column and may cause changes to the parameters to be measured (for example, turbidity, gases, etc.).
1.1 This practice covers the procedure for sampling stratified or un-stratified waters and liquid waste using bailers.
1.2 Three specific bailers are discussed in this practice. The bailers are the single and double check valve and differential pressure.
1.3 This standard does not cover all of the bailing devices available to the user. The bailers chosen for this practice are typical of those commercially available.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D4448 Guide for Sampling Ground-Water Monitoring Wells
D4687 Guide for General Planning of Waste Sampling
D4750 Test Method for Determining Subsurface Liquid Levels in a Borehole or Monitoring Well (Observation Well)
D5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
D5283 Practice for Generation of Environmental Data Related to Waste Management Activities: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Planning and Implementation
D5681 Terminology for Waste and Waste Management
D5792 Practice for Generation of Environmental Data Related to Waste Management Activities: Development of Data Quality Objectives
D6051 Guide for Composite Sampling and Field Subsampling for Environmental Waste Management Activities
D6232 Guide for Selection of Sampling Equipment for Waste and Contaminated Media Data Collection Activities
D6517 Guide for Field Preservation of Groundwater Samples
D6564 Guide for Field Filtration of Ground-Water Samples
D6634 Guide for the Selection of Purging and Sampling Devices for Ground-Water Monitoring Wells
EPA StandardEPASW486 RCRA Samples
ICS Number Code 13.030.20 (Liquid wastes. Sludge); 55.100 (Bottles. Pots. Jars)
UNSPSC Code 81102600(Sampling services); 77121700(Water pollution)