ASTM D6681 - 13

    Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oils in a High Speed, Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine—Caterpillar 1P Test Procedure

    Active Standard ASTM D6681 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.B0.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.03


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    ASTM D6681

    Significance and Use

    5.1 This is an accelerated engine oil test, performed in a standardized, calibrated, stationary single-cylinder diesel engine that gives a measure of (1) piston and ring groove deposit forming tendency, (2) piston, ring and liner scuffing and (3) oil consumption. The test is used in the establishment of diesel engine oil specification requirements as cited in Specification D4485 for appropriate API Performance Category C oils (API 1509). The test method can also be used in diesel engine oil development.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers and is required to evaluate the performance of engine oils intended to satisfy certain American Petroleum Institute (API) C service categories (included in Specification D4485). It is performed in a laboratory using a standardized high-speed, single-cylinder diesel engine.4 Piston and ring groove deposit-forming tendency and oil consumption is measured. The piston, the rings, and the liner are also examined for distress and the rings for mobility.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.2.1 Exceptions—Where there is no direct SI equivalent such as screw threads, National Pipe Threads/diameters, tubing size, or where there is a sole source supply equipment specification.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Being an engine test method, this standard does have definite hazards that require safe practices (see Appendix X2 on Safety).

    1.4 The following is the Table of Contents:

     

    Section

    Scope

    1

    Referenced Documents

    2

    Terminology

    3

    Summary of Test Method

    4

    Significance and Use

    5

    Apparatus and Installation

    6

     Intake Air System

    6.2.1

     Exhaust System

    6.2.2

     Fuel System

    6.2.3

     Oil Consumption System

    6.2.4

     Engine Oil System

    6.2.5

      Oil Heating System

    6.2.5.1

      Oil Sample Valve

    6.2.5.2

     Engine Coolant System

    6.2.6

     Engine Instrumentation

    6.2.7

    Reagents and Materials

    7

    Oil Samples

    8

    Preparation of Apparatus

    9

     General Engine Assembly Practices

    9.1

     Complete Engine Inspection

    9.2

     Copper Components

    9.3

     Engine Lubricant System Flush

    9.4

     Engine Piston Cooling Jets

    9.5

     Engine Measurements and Inspections

    9.6

     Cylinder Head

    9.7

     Valve Guide Bushings

    9.8

     Fuel Injector

    9.9

     Piston and Rings

    9.10

     Cylinder Liner

    9.11

     Compression Ratio

    9.12

     Engine Timing

    9.13

     Engine Coolant System Cleaning Procedure

    9.14

    Calibration and Standardization

    10

     Test Cell Instrumentation

    10.1

     Instrumentation Standards

    10.2

     Coolant Flow

    10.3

     Re-calibration Requirements

    10.4

     Fuel Injectors

    10.5

     Air Flow

    10.6

     Intake Air Barrel

    10.7

     Fuel Filter

    10.8

     Oil Scale Flow Rates

    10.9

     Calibration of Test Stands

    10.10

     Extending Test Stand Calibration Period

    10.11

     Test Run Numbering

    10.13

     Humidity Calibration Requirements

    10.14

     Calibration of Piston Deposit Raters

    10.15

    Procedure

    11

     Engine Break-in Procedure

    11.1

     Cool-down Procedure

    11.2

     Warm-up Procedure

    11.3

     Shutdowns and Lost Time

    11.4

     Periodic Measurements

    11.5

     Engine Control Systems

    11.6

      Engine Coolant

    11.6.1

      Engine Fuel System

    11.6.2

      Engine Oil Temperature

    11.6.3

      Exhaust Pressure

    11.6.4

      Intake Air

    11.6.5

     Post-Test Procedures

    11.7

      Piston Ring Side Clearances

    11.7.1

      Piston Ratings

    11.7.2

       Referee Ratings

    11.7.3

      Ring End Gap Increase

    11.7.4

      Cylinder Liner Wear

    11.7.5

      Cylinder Liner Bore Polish

    11.7.6

      Photographs

    11.7.7

    Calculation and Interpretation of Results

    12

     Test Validity

    12.1

     Calculations

    12.2

      Quality Index

    12.2.1

      Oil Consumption

    12.2.2

    Report

    13

     Forms and Data Dictionary

    13.1

     Test Validity

    13.2

     Report Specifics

    13.3

    Precision and Bias

    14

     Precision

    14.1

     Bias

    14.1.4

    Keywords

    15

    Annexes

    Engine and Parts Warranty

    Annex A1

    Instrument Locations, Measurements, and Calculations

    Annex A2

    Cooling System Arrangement

    Annex A3

    Intake Air Mass Flow Sensor Installation

    Annex A4

    Fuel System Design and Required Components

    Annex A5

    Oil System

    Annex A6

    Exhaust and Intake Barrel Piping

    Annex A7

    Humidity Probe Installation (Location)

    Annex A8

    Return Goods Authorization (Claim Form)

    Annex A9

    Engine Assembly Information

    Annex A10

    Flushing Instructions and Apparatus

    Annex A11

    Warm-up, Cool-down and Testing Conditions

    Annex A12

    Piston and Liner Rating Modifications

    Annex A13

    Additional Report Forms

    Annex A14

    Test Report Forms

    Annex A15

    Appendixes

    Various Examples for Reference Purposes

    Appendix X1

    Safety

    Appendix X2



    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure

    D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester

    D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products

    D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test

    D235 Specification for Mineral Spirits (Petroleum Spirits) (Hydrocarbon Dry Cleaning Solvent)

    D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

    D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products

    D524 Test Method for Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products

    D613 Test Method for Cetane Number of Diesel Fuel Oil

    D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration

    D1319 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption

    D2274 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Distillate Fuel Oil (Accelerated Method)

    D2425 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Middle Distillates by Mass Spectrometry

    D2500 Test Method for Cloud Point of Petroleum Products

    D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D2709 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge

    D3227 Test Method for (Thiol Mercaptan) Sulfur in Gasoline, Kerosine, Aviation Turbine, and Distillate Fuels (Potentiometric Method)

    D3524 Test Method for Diesel Fuel Diluent in Used Diesel Engine Oils by Gas Chromatography

    D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter

    D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Lubricants

    D4485 Specification for Performance of Active API Service Category Engine Oils

    D4739 Test Method for Base Number Determination by Potentiometric Hydrochloric Acid Titration

    D5185 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements, Wear Metals, and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils and Determination of Selected Elements in Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    D5862 Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oils in Two-Stroke Cycle Turbo-Supercharged 6V92TA Diesel Engine

    D6202 Test Method for Automotive Engine Oils on the Fuel Economy of Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks in the Sequence VIA Spark Ignition Engine

    D6593 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Inhibition of Deposit Formation in a Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine Fueled with Gasoline and Operated Under Low-Temperature, Light-Duty Conditions

    D7422 Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in T-12 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Diesel Engine

    E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    G40 Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion

    SAE Standard

    SAEJ183 Engine Oil Performance and Engine Service Classification Available from the Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096.

    API Standard

    API1509 Engine Service Classification and Guide to Crankcase Oil Selection Available from the American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street NW, Washington DC, 20005.


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15121501(Engine oil)


    DOI: 10.1520/D6681

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