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Significance and Use
Increasing attention is being paid to human exposure to airborne chemicals from products or materials used indoors, for two reasons:
Individuals spend substantial fractions of their time indoors.
Such exposures can occur repeatedly throughout one's lifetime.
The primary objectives of this practice are as follows:
To list the elements that need to be considered in developing a scenario to describe how exposure occurs to chemicals emitted from alkyd or latex interior paints.
To discuss procedures and alternatives for choosing and describing these elements.
Elements of an exposure scenario, in turn, are used to practice a subsequent step of estimating exposures through monitoring studies or computer modeling exercises.
Once exposures have been estimated, the results can be used to assess the potential impacts of a specific paint formulation on the health of exposed individuals, or to compare the relative impacts of alternative formulations.
Estimation of exposures, or comparisons of estimated exposures across alternative paint formulations, can lead to development of environmentally preferable products by minimizing adverse health effects for exposed individuals.
1.1 This practice provides procedures for constructing scenarios for assessment of inhalation exposure to airborne emissions of chemicals released from alkyd or latex paints that are used indoors.
1.2 The indoor environments covered in this practice, in terms of considerations for developing exposure scenarios, are residences and office buildings.
1.3 Elements of the exposure scenarios include the product and chemical(s) to be assessed, the indoor environment where the product is applied, application of the product, chemical emissions during and after product application, and location/activity patterns of individuals who may be exposed to the airborne chemical emissions.
1.4 Steps to be performed after developing exposure scenarios, such as monitoring, modeling and exposure/risk assessment, also are described.
1.5 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1005 Test Method for Measurement of Dry-Film Thickness of Organic Coatings Using Micrometers
D1212 Test Methods for Measurement of Wet Film Thickness of Organic Coatings
D1356 Terminology Relating to Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres
D5116 Guide for Small-Scale Environmental Chamber Determinations of Organic Emissions from Indoor Materials/Products
D6178 Practice for Estimation of Short-term Inhalation Exposure to Volatile Organic Chemicals Emitted from Bedding Sets
D6485 Guide for Risk Characterization of Acute and Irritant Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Volatile Organic Chemicals Emitted from Bedding Sets
E741 Test Method for Determining Air Change in a Single Zone by Means of a Tracer Gas Dilution
ICS Number Code 19.040 (Environmental testing); 87.040 (Paints and varnishes)
UNSPSC Code 77121500(Air pollution); 31211500(Paints and primers)