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Significance and Use
New and used petroleum products, biodiesel and blends of biodiesel may contain acidic constituents that are present as additives or as degradation products formed during service, such as oxidation products. The relative amount of these materials can be determined by titrating with bases. The acid number is a measure of this amount of acidic substance in the oil, always under the conditions of the test. The acid number is used as a guide in the quality control of lubricating oil formulations. It is also sometimes used as a measure of lubricant degradation in service. Any condemning limits must be empirically established.
Since a variety of oxidation products contribute to the acid number and the organic acids vary widely in corrosion properties, the test method cannot be used to predict corrosiveness of oil or biodiesel and blends under service conditions. No general correlation is known between acid number and the corrosive tendency of biodiesel and blends or oils toward metals.
1.1 This test method covers procedures for the determination of acidic constituents in petroleum products, lubricants, biodiesel and blends of biodiesel.
1.1.1 Test Method A—For petroleum products and lubricants soluble or nearly soluble in mixtures of toluene and propan-2-ol. It is applicable for the determination of acids whose dissociation constants in water are larger than 10-9; extremely weak acids whose dissociation constants are smaller than 10-9 do not interfere. Salts react if their hydrolysis constants are larger than 10-9. The range of acid numbers included in the precision statement is 0.1 mg/g KOH to 150 mg/g KOH.
1.1.2 Test Method B—Developed specifically for biodiesel and biodiesel blends with low acidity and slightly different solubility. This test method requires the use of an automatic titrator with automatic endpoint seeking capability.
Note 1—In new and used oils, the constituents that may be considered to have acidic characteristics include organic and inorganic acids, esters, phenolic compounds, lactones, resins, salts of heavy metals, salts of ammonia and other weak bases, acid salts of polybasic acids, and addition agents such as inhibitors and detergents.
1.2 The test method may be used to indicate relative changes that occur in oil during use under oxidizing conditions regardless of the color or other properties of the resulting oil. Although the titration is made under definite equilibrium conditions, the test method is not intended to measure an absolute acidic property that can be used to predict performance of oil under service conditions. No general relationship between bearing corrosion and acid number is known.
Note 2—The acid number obtained by this standard may or may not be numerically the same as that obtained in accordance with Test Methods D974 and D3339. There has not been any attempt to correlate this method with other non-titration methods.
Note 3—A few laboratories have made the observation that there is a difference in Test Method D664 results when aqueous versus nonaqueous buffers are used.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D974 Test Method for Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D3339 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Semi-Micro Color Indicator Titration
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
ICS Number Code 75.080 (Petroleum products in general)
UNSPSC Code 15101500(Petroleum and distillates)