Significance and Use
5.1 This guide provides information addressing the conditions that lead to fuel microbial contamination and biodegradation and the general characteristics of and strategies for controlling microbial contamination. It compliments and amplifies information provided in Practice D4418 on handling gas-turbine fuels. More detailed information may be found in the IP Guidelines and in ASTM Manual 47.
5.2 This guide focuses on microbial contamination in refined petroleum products and product handling systems. Uncontrolled microbial contamination in fuels and fuel systems remains a largely unrecognized but costly problem at all stages of the petroleum industry from crude oil production through fleet operations and consumer use. This guide introduces the fundamental concepts of fuel microbiology and biodeterioration control.
5.3 This guide provides personnel who are responsible for fuel and fuel system stewardship with the background necessary to make informed decisions regarding the possible economic or safety, or both, impact of microbial contamination in their products or systems.
1.1 This guide provides personnel who have a limited microbiological background with an understanding of the symptoms, occurrence, and consequences of chronic microbial contamination. The guide also suggests means for detection and control of microbial contamination in fuels and fuel systems. This guide applies primarily to gasoline, aviation, boiler, industrial gas turbine, diesel, marine, furnace fuels and blend stocks (see Specifications D396, D910, D975, D1655, D2069, D2880, D3699, D4814, D6227, and D6751), and fuel systems. However, the principles discussed herein also apply generally to crude oil and all liquid petroleum fuels. ASTM Manual 47 provides a more detailed treatment of the concepts introduced in this guide; it also provides a compilation of all of the standards referenced herein that are not found in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Section Five on Petroleum Products and Lubricants.
1.2 This guide is not a compilation of all of the concepts and terminology used by microbiologists, but it does provide a general understanding of microbial fuel contamination.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test
D396 Specification for Fuel Oils
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D515 Test Method for Phosphorus In Water
D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration
D888 Test Methods for Dissolved Oxygen in Water
D910 Specification for Aviation Gasolines
D974 Test Method for Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration
D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils
D1067 Test Methods for Acidity or Alkalinity of Water
D1126 Test Method for Hardness in Water
D1293 Test Methods for pH of Water
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D1331 Test Methods for Surface and Interfacial Tension of Solutions of Surface-Active Agents
D1426 Test Methods for Ammonia Nitrogen In Water
D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels
D1744 Test Method for Determination of Water in Liquid Petroleum Products by Karl Fischer Reagent
D1976 Test Method for Elements in Water by Inductively-Coupled Argon Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
D2068 Test Method for Determining Filter Blocking Tendency
D2069 Specification for Marine Fuels
D2274 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Distillate Fuel Oil (Accelerated Method)
D2276 Test Method for Particulate Contaminant in Aviation Fuel by Line Sampling
D2880 Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils
D3240 Test Method for Undissolved Water In Aviation Turbine Fuels
D3241 Test Method for Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Turbine Fuels
D3242 Test Method for Acidity in Aviation Turbine Fuel
D3325 Practice for Preservation of Waterborne Oil Samples
D3326 Practice for Preparation of Samples for Identification of Waterborne Oils
D3328 Test Methods for Comparison of Waterborne Petroleum Oils by Gas Chromatography
D3414 Test Method for Comparison of Waterborne Petroleum Oils by Infrared Spectroscopy
D3699 Specification for Kerosine
D3867 Test Methods for Nitrite-Nitrate in Water
D3870 Practice for Establishing Performance Characteristics for Colony Counting Methods in Microbiology
D4012 Test Method for Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Content of Microorganisms in Water
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4176 Test Method for Free Water and Particulate Contamination in Distillate Fuels (Visual Inspection Procedures)
D4412 Test Methods for Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Water and Water-Formed Deposits
D4418 Practice for Receipt, Storage, and Handling of Fuels for Gas Turbines
D4454 Test Method for Simultaneous Enumeration of Total and Respiring Bacteria in Aquatic Systems by Microscopy
D4814 Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
D4840 Guide for Sample Chain-of-Custody Procedures
D4860 Test Method for Free Water and Particulate Contamination in Middle Distillate Fuels (Clear and Bright Numerical Rating)
D4870 Test Method for Determination of Total Sediment in Residual Fuels
D4952 Test Method for Qualitative Analysis for Active Sulfur Species in Fuels and Solvents (Doctor Test)
D5304 Test Method for Assessing Middle Distillate Fuel Storage Stability by Oxygen Overpressure
D5452 Test Method for Particulate Contamination in Aviation Fuels by Laboratory Filtration
D6217 Test Method for Particulate Contamination in Middle Distillate Fuels by Laboratory Filtration
D6227 Specification for Unleaded Aviation Gasoline Containing a Non-hydrocarbon Component
D6426 Test Method for Determining Filterability of Middle Distillate Fuel Oils
D6751 Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels
D6974 Practice for Enumeration of Viable Bacteria and Fungi in Liquid Fuels--Filtration and Culture Procedures
D7463 Test Method for Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Content of Microorganisms in Fuel, Fuel/Water Mixtures and Fuel Associated Water
D7464 Practice for Manual Sampling of Liquid Fuels, Associated Materials and Fuel System Components for Microbiological Testing
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E1259 Practice for Evaluation of Antimicrobials in Liquid Fuels Boiling Below 390C
E1326 Guide for Evaluating Nonconventional Microbiological Tests Used for Enumerating Bacteria
98/8/EC Biocidal Products Directive Official Journal of the European Communities, 24.4.98, L123/1-63(1998).
Test Method 2540D Total Suspended Solids Dried at 103-105C Available from American Public Health Association, 800 I Street, NW Washington, DC 20001.
TPC Publication No. The role of bacteria in the corrosion of oil field equipment Available from NACE International (NACE), 1440 South Creek Dr., Houston, TX 77084-4906, http://www.nace.org.
40 CFR 152 Pesticide Registration and Classification Procedures
Energy Institute Standards
IP 385 Determination of the viable aerobic microbial content of fuels and fuel components boiling below 390C - Filtration and culture method
IP 472 Determination of fungal fragment content of fuels boiling below 390C
biocides; biodegradation; biodeterioration; biological contamination; contamination; fuel quality; microbial contamination; microbially influenced corrosion; microbiological testing; sampling;
ICS Number Code 27.060.10 (Liquid and solid fuel burners); 43.060.40 (Fuel systems)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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