Significance and Use
This test method provides an indication of thermal oxidative stability of distillate fuels when heated to high temperatures that simulate those that may occur in some types of recirculating engine or burner fuel delivery systems. Results have not been substantially correlated to engine or burner operation. The test method can be useful for investigation of operational problems related to fuel thermal stability.
When the test method is used to monitor manufacture or storage of fuels, changes in filter rating values can indicate a relative change in inherent stability. Storage stability predictions are more reliable when correlated to longer-term storage tests, for example, Test Method D 4625, or other lower temperature, long-term tests. When fuel samples are freshly produced, aging for 180 min, instead of the traditional 90-min interval, tends to give a result correlating more satisfactorily with the above methods (see Appendix X2).
The test method uses a filter paper with a nominal porosity of 11 μm, which will not capture all of the sediment formed during aging but allows differentiation over a broad range. Reflectance ratings are also affected by the color of filterable insolubles, which may not correlate to the mass of the material filtered from the aged fuel sample. Therefore, no quantitative relationship exists between the pad rating and the gravimetric mass of filterable insolubles.
1.1 This test method covers relative stability of middle distillate fuels under high temperature aging conditions with limited air exposure. This test method is suitable for all No. 1 and No. 2 grades in Specifications D 396, D 975, D 2880, and D 3699. It is also suitable for similar fuels meeting other specifications.
1.2 This test method is not suitable for fuels whose flash point, as determined by Test Methods D 56, D 93, or D 3828, is less than 38°C. This test method is not suitable for fuels containing residual oil.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3.1 Exception—The maximum vacuum includes inch-pound units in 6.5 and 11.2.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
D396 Specification for Fuel Oils
D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils
D1500 Test Method for ASTM Color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale)
D2274 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Distillate Fuel Oil (Accelerated Method)
D2880 Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils
D3699 Specification for Kerosine
D3828 Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4625 Test Method for Middle Distillate Fuel Storage Stability at 43C (110F)
D5452 Test Method for Particulate Contamination in Aviation Fuels by Laboratory Filtration
fuel insolubles; high temperature stability; middle distillate fuels; storage stability; thermal stability; Distillate fuels; Fuel insolubles; High-temperature processing/testing; Middle distillate fuels; Storage stability--petroleum products; Thermal stability--petroleum products;
ICS Number Code 27.060.10 (Liquid and solid fuel burners)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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