Significance and Use
The FTIR measurements provide for multicomponent on-site analysis of source effluent.
This test method provides the volume concentration of detected analytes. Converting the volume concentration to a mass emission rate using a particular compound's molecular weight, and the effluent volumetric flow rate, temperature and pressure is useful for determining the impact of that compound to the atmosphere.
Known concentrations of target analytes are spiked into the effluent to evaluate the sampling and analytical system's effectiveness for transport and quantification of the target analytes, and to ensure that the data collected are meaningful.
The FTIR measurement data are used to evaluate process conditions, emissions control devices, and for determining compliance with emission standards or other applicable permits.
Data quality objectives for each specific testing program must be specified and outlined in a test plan (Annex A1). Supporting data are available from ASTM Headquarters Request RR:D22-1027.
1.1 This field test method employs an extractive sampling system to direct stationary source effluent to an FTIR spectrometer for the identification and quantification of gaseous compounds. Concentration results are provided. This test method is potentially applicable for the determination of compounds that (1) have sufficient vapor pressure to be transported to the FTIR spectrometer and (2) absorb a sufficient amount of infrared radiation to be detected.
1.2 This field test method provides near real time analysis of extracted gas samples from stationary sources. Gas streams with high moisture content may require conditioning to minimize the excessive spectral absorption features imposed by water vapor.
1.3 This field test method requires the preparation of a source specific field test plan. The test plan must include the following: (1) the identification of the specific target analytes (2) the known analytical interferents specific to the test facility source effluent (3) the test data quality necessary to meet the specific test requirements and (4) the results obtained from the laboratory testing (see Annex A1 for test plan requirements).
1.4 The FTIR instrument range should be sufficient to measure from high ppm(v) to ppb(v) and may be extended to higher or lower concentrations using any or all of the following procedures:
1.4.1 The gas absorption cell path length may be either increased or decreased,
1.4.2 The sample conditioning system may be modified to reduce the water vapor, CO2, and other interfering compounds to levels that allow for quantification of the target compound(s), and
1.4.3 The analytical algorithm may be modified such that interfering absorbance bands are minimized or stronger/weaker absorbance bands are employed for the target analytes.
1.5 The practical minimum detectable concentration is instrument, compound, and interference specific (see Annex A2 for procedures to estimate the achievable minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs)). The actual sensitivity of the FTIR measurement system for the individual target analytes depends upon the following:
1.5.1 The specific infrared absorptivity (signal) and wavelength analysis region for each target analyte,
1.5.2 The amount of instrument noise (see Annex A6), and
1.5.3 The concentration of interfering compounds in the sample gas (in particular, percent moisture and CO2), and the amount of spectral overlap imparted by these compounds in the wavelength region(s) used for the quantification of the target analytes.
1.5.4 Any sampling system interferences such as adsorption or outgassing.
1.6 Practices E168 and E1252 are suggested for additional reading.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Additional safety precautions are described in Section 9.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1356 Terminology Relating to Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres
D3195 Practice for Rotameter Calibration
E168 Practices for General Techniques of Infrared Quantitative Analysis
E1252 Practice for General Techniques for Obtaining Infrared Spectra for Qualitative Analysis
EPA Methods (40 CFR Part 60 Appendix A)
Method4Series Determination of Moisture Content in Stack Gases
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; stack gas analysis; stationary source; Detector linearity; Extractive direct interface FTIR analysis; FTIR analysis; FTIR reference spectra; Line position/resolution; MDC (minimum detectable concentration); Noise equivalent absorbance (NEA); Post-test QA/QC; Pre-test procedures; Spike gas; Stack gas analysis; Stationary source; Analyte spiking technique; Analytical quantification method; CTS (calibration transfer standard); Data quality objectives (DQO)
ICS Number Code 71.040.40 (Chemical analysis)
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