Significance and Use
The effects of VOC sources on the indoor air quality in buildings have not been well established. One basic requirement that has emerged from indoor air quality studies is the need for well-characterized test data on the emission factors of VOCs from building materials. Standard test method and procedure are a requirement for the comparison of emission factor data from different products.
This practice describes a procedure for using a small environmental test chamber to determine the emission factors of VOCs from wood-based panels over a specified period of time. A pre-screening analysis procedure is also provided to identify the VOCs emitted from the products, to determine the appropriate GC/MS or GC/FID analytical procedure, and to estimate required sampling volume for the subsequent environmental chamber testing.
Test results obtained using this practice provide a basis for comparing the VOC emission characteristics of different wood-based panel products. The emission data can be used to inform manufacturers of the VOC emissions from their products. The data can also be used to identify building materials with reduced VOC emissions over the time interval of the test.
While emission factors determined by using this practice can be used to compare different products, the concentrations measured in the chamber shall not be considered as the resultant concentrations in an actual indoor environment.
1.1 The practice measures the volatile organic compounds (VOC), excluding formaldehyde, emitted from manufactured wood-based panels. A pre-screening analysis is used to identify the VOCs emitted from the panel. Emission factors (that is, emission rates per unit surface area) for the VOCs of interest are then determined by measuring the concentrations in a small environmental test chamber containing a specimen. The test chamber is ventilated at a constant air change rate under the standard environmental conditions. For formaldehyde determination, see Test Method D 6007.
1.2 This practice describes a test method that is specific to the measurement of VOC emissions from newly manufactured individual wood-based panels, such as particleboard, plywood, and oriented strand board (OSB), for the purpose of comparing the emission characteristics of different products under the standard test condition. For general guidance on conducting small environmental chamber tests, see Guide D 5116.
1.3 VOC concentrations in the environmental test chamber are determined by adsorption on an appropriate single adsorbent tube or multi-adsorbent tube, followed by thermal desorption and combined gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatograph/flame ionization detection (GC/FID). The air sampling procedure and the analytical method recommended in this practice are generally valid for the identification and quantification of VOCs with saturation vapor pressure between 500 and 0.01 kPa at 25°C, depending on the selection of adsorbent(s).
Note 1—VOCs being captured by an adsorbent tube depend on the adsorbent(s) and sampling procedure selected (see Practice D 6196). The user should have a thorough understanding of the limitations of each adsorbent used.
1.4 The emission factors determined using the above procedure describe the emission characteristics of the specimen under the standard test condition. These data can be used directly to compare the emission characteristics of different products and to estimate the emission rates up to one month after the production. They shall not be used to predict the emission rates over longer periods of time (that is, more than one month) or under different environmental conditions.
1.5 Emission data from chamber tests can be used for predicting the impact of wood-based panels on the VOC concentrations in buildings by using an appropriate indoor air quality model, which is beyond the scope of this practice.
1.6 The values stated in SI units shall be regarded as the standard (see IEEE/ASTM SI-10).
1.7 This practice does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of the standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specified hazard statements see Section 6.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1356 Terminology Relating to Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres
D1914 Practice for Conversion Units and Factors Relating to Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres
D5116 Guide for Small-Scale Environmental Chamber Determinations of Organic Emissions from Indoor Materials/Products
D6007 Test Method for Determining Formaldehyde Concentrations in Air from Wood Products Using a Small-Scale Chamber
D6196 Practice for Selection of Sorbents, Sampling, and Thermal Desorption Analysis Procedures for Volatile Organic Compounds in Air
E355 Practice for Gas Chromatography Terms and Relationships
E741 Test Method for Determining Air Change in a Single Zone by Means of a Tracer Gas Dilution
EPATO-17 Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air Using Active Sampling Onto Sorbent Tubes, Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air
chemical analysis; emission factors; small environmental test chamber; standard dynamic chamber test conditions; volatile organic compounds; wood-based panels; Chemical analysis--atmospheric; Emission monitoring; Small chamber testing; Standard dynamic chamber test conditions; Volatile organic compounds (VOC)--atmospheres; Wood-based materials/applications;
ICS Number Code 13.040.99 (Other standards related to air quality); 71.100.50 (Wood-protecting chemicals); 79.060.01 (Wood-based panels in general)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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