ASTM D629 - 15

    Standard Test Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Textiles

    Active Standard ASTM D629 | Developed by Subcommittee: D13.51

    Book of Standards Volume: 07.01


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 Qualitative and quantitative fiber identification is actively pursued by committee RA24 (Fiber Identification) of AATCC and presented in AATCC Test Methods 20 and 20A. Since precision and bias development is also part of the AATCC test methods, both AATCC and ASTM D13 have agreed that new development will take place in RA24. However, because there is valuable information still present in the ASTM standards, D13.51 has agreed Test MethodsD276 and D629 will be maintained as active standards by ASTM.

    5.2 Test Methods D629 for the determination of quantitative analysis of textiles may be used for acceptance testing of commercial shipments but caution is advised since information on between-laboratory precision is lacking. Comparative tests as directed in 5.2.1 or in Standard Tables D1909 may be advisable.

    5.2.1 In case of a dispute arising from differences in reported test results using Test Methods D629 for acceptance testing of commercial shipments, the purchaser and the supplier should conduct comparative tests to determine if there is a statistical bias between their laboratories. Competent statistical assistance is recommended for the investigation of bias. As a minimum, the two parties should take a group of test specimens which are as homogeneous as possible and which are from a lot of material of the type in question. The test specimen should then be randomly assigned in equal numbers to each laboratory for testing. The average results from the two laboratories should be compared using Student's t-test and an acceptable probability level chosen by the two parties before the testing began. If a bias is found, either its cause must be found and corrected or the purchaser and supplier must agree to interpret future test results in the light of the known bias.

    5.3 The effects of the various reagents used in the chemical methods on the residual fibers in a blend depend upon the history of the fibers and, unless otherwise stated, are generally too small or too uncertain to warrant the application of correction factors.

    5.4 Fiber composition is generally expressed either on the oven-dry mass of the original sample or the oven-dry mass of the clean fiber after the removal of nonfibrous materials. If nonfibrous materials are not first removed from the textile before the fiber analysis is carried out, or if the treatments described in Section 8 are incapable of removing them, any such materials present will increase the percentage of the fiber constituent with which they are removed during the analysis, assuming they are soluble in the solvent used.

    5.5 The analytical methods are intended primarily for the separation of binary mixtures of fibers. These procedures may also be used for the analysis of mixtures containing more than two types of fibers by selecting the best combination of methods to use (Table 1). Since a sequence of solvents on a given fiber may produce different results than the expected results from a single solvent, it is advisable to determine the results of such sequential effects when testing multiple fiber blends. It is sometimes more convenient to separate mechanically the yarns in a textile which are of similar types, and then use the appropriate chemical method to analyze each of the components. Table 2 shows the solubilities of the various fibers in different chemical reagents.

    (A) Key to Methods and Reagents:

    Method No. 1—80 % acetone(cold)

    Method No. 2— N-Butyrolactone

    Method No. 3—90 % formic acid

    Method No. 4—59.5 % sulfuric acid

    Method No. 5—70 % sulfuric acid

    Method No. 6—Sodium hypochlorite solution

    Method No. 7—Curpammonia solution

    Method No. 8—Hot xylene

    Method No. 9—90 % formic acid

    Method No. 10—N,N-dimethylacetamide

    (B) Each analytical method is identified by a number and where possible, two methods of analysis are provided for each binary mixture of fibers. The number or numbers inside parentheses refers to the method that dissolves the fiber shown at the top of the diagram. The number or numbers outside the parentheses indicates the method that dissolves the fiber listed at the left side of the diagram. Where two methods are listed for a specific binary mixture, the non-superscript method number represents the method of choice.
    (A) Key to Symbols:

    S  =  Soluble

    PS  =  Partially Soluble

    SS  =  Slightly Soluble (a correction factor may be applied)

    I  =  Insoluble

    (B) Reworked wools are soluble in 70 % H2SO4 depending upon their previous history.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the determination of the fiber blend composition of mixtures of the fibers listed in 1.2. Procedures for quantitative estimation of the amount of moisture and certain nonfibrous materials in textiles are also described, for use in the analysis of mixtures, but these are not the primary methods for the determination of moisture content for commercial weights.

    1.2 These test methods cover procedures for the following fiber types:

    1.2.1 Natural Fibers: 

    1.2.1.1 Cellulose-Base Fibers:

     Cotton

     Hemp

     Flax

     Ramie

    1.2.1.2 Protein-Base Fibers:

     Animal hairs (other than wool)

     Silk, cultivated

     Silk, Tussah

     Wool

    1.2.2 Man-Made Fibers: 

    1.2.2.1 Cellulose-Base Fibers:

     Acetate (secondary)

     Rayon, viscose or cuprammonium

     Triacetate

    1.2.2.2 Synthetic-Base Fibers:

     Acrylic

     Aramid

     Modacrylic

     Nylon 6, Nylon 6-6, others

     Olefin

     Polyester

     Spandex

    1.3 These test methods include the following sections and tables:

     

    Section

     

    Referenced Documents

    2

    Terminology

    3

    Summary of Methods

    4

    Uses and Significance

    5

    Sampling

    7

    Purity of Reagents

    6

    Moisture Content or Moisture Regain

    9

    Nonfibrous Materials

    8

    Mechanical Separation or Dissection

    10

    Chemical Test Methods:

     

     Summary of Methods

    11

     Specimens and Symbols

    12

     No. 1 Acetate Mixed With Other Fibers

    13

     No. 2 Modacrylic Mixed With Cellulosic Fiber or Wool

    14

     No. 3 Nylon 6 or Nylon 6-6 Mixed With Natural Fibers or   Rayon

    15

     No. 4 Rayon Mixed With Cotton

    16

     No. 5 Wool or Polyester Mixed With Cellulosic Fibers or Silk

    17

     No. 6 Polyester or Acrylic Mixed With Wool

    18

     No. 7 Natural Cellulosic Material and Rayon Mixed With   Acrylic, Modacrylic, and Polyester

    19

     No. 8 Polyester Mixed With Olefin

    20

     No. 9 Polyester Mixed With Acetate or Nylon 6,6-6

    21

     No. 10 Acrylic Fiber or Linear Spandex Mixed With Nylon or   Polyester

    22

    Microscopical Analysis

     

     Scope

    23

     Summary of Method

    24

     Sampling

    26

     Apparatus

    25

     Procedure

    27

    Keywords

    28

     

     

    Table

     

    Chemical Methods for Analysis of Fiber Mixtures

     1

    Solubilities of Various Fibers in Solvents Used in Chemical
     Methods

     2

    Fineness Ranges and Fiber Diameters of Various Textile Fibers

     3

    Density and Moisture Regain of Common Fiber Types

     4

    1.4 The analytical procedures described in the test methods are applicable to the fibers listed in 1.2. The test methods are not satisfactory for the separation of mixtures containing fibers that fall within the same generic class but differ somewhat, either physically or chemically, from each other. These test methods are not satisfactory for the determination of bicomponent fibers.

    Note 1: For other methods of analysis covering specific determinations, refer to: Test Methods D461, Test Method D584, Methods D885, Test Method D1113, Test Method D1334, and Test Method D2130. Methods for moisture are covered in Methods D885, Test Method D1576, Test Method D2462, Test Method D2495 and Test Methods D2654. For the determination of commercial weight, refer to Test Method D2494.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles

    D276 Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles

    D461 Test Methods for Felt

    D584 Test Method for Wool Content of Raw Wool--Laboratory Scale

    D885 Test Methods for Tire Cords, Tire Cord Fabrics, and Industrial Filament Yarns Made from Manufactured Organic-Base Fibers

    D1113 Test Method for Vegetable Matter and Other Alkali-Insoluble Impurities in Scoured Wool

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D1334 Test Method for Wool Content of Raw Wool--Commercial Scale

    D1576 Test Method for Moisture in Wool by Oven-Drying

    D1909 Standard Table of Commercial Moisture Regains for Textile Fibers

    D2130 Test Method for Diameter of Wool and Other Animal Fibers by Microprojection

    D2462 Test Method for Moisture in Wool by Distillation With Toluene

    D2494 Test Method for Commercial Mass of a Shipment of Yarn or Manufactured Staple Fiber or Tow

    D2495 Test Method for Moisture in Cotton by Oven-Drying

    D2654 Test Method for Moisture in Textiles

    AATCC Method

    20 A Test Method for Fiber Analysis: Quantitative AATCC Technical Manual, available from the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, P.O. Box 12215, Triangle Park, NC 27709.


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 59.080.01 (Textiles in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 11161800(Synthetic fabrics)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D0629-15

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D629-15, Standard Test Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Textiles, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, www.astm.org

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