Significance and Use
The soil-lime pH test is performed as a test to indicate the soil-lime proportion needed to maintain the elevated pH necessary for sustaining the reactions required to stabilize a soil. The test derives from Eades and Grim.
Performance tests are normally conducted in a laboratory to verify the results of this test method.
This test method will not provide reliable information relative to the potential reactivity of a particular soil, nor will it provide information on the magnitude of increased strength to be realized upon treatment of this soil with the indicated percentage of lime.
This test method can be used to estimate the percentage of lime as hydrated lime or quicklime needed to stabilize soil.
Agricultural lime (crushed limestone) will not stabilize soil.
Note 1—Notwithstanding the statements on precision and bias contained in this test method: The precision of this test method is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D 3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing. Users of this test method are cautioned that compliance with Practice D 3740 does not itself ensure reliable testing. Reliable testing depends on several factors; Practice D 3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.
1.1 This test method provides a means for estimating the soil-lime proportion requirement for stabilization of a soil. This test method is performed on soil passing the −425-μm (No. 40) sieve. The optimum soil-lime proportion for soil stabilization is determined by tests of specific characteristics of stabilized soil such as unconfined compressive strength or plasticity index.
1.2 Some highly alkaline by-products (lime kiln dust, cement kiln dust, and so forth) have been successfully used to stabilize soil. This test method is not intended for these materials and any such product would need to be tested for specific characteristics as indicated in 1.1.
1.3 This test method is used to determine the lowest percentage of lime that results in a soil-lime pH of 12.4.
1.4 Lime is not an effective stabilizing agent for all soils. Some soil components such as sulfates, phosphates, organics, and so forth can adversely affect soil-lime reactions and may produce erroneous results using this test method.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C51 Terminology Relating to Lime and Limestone (as used by the Industry)
C977 Specification for Quicklime and Hydrated Lime for Soil Stabilization
D421 Practice for Dry Preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-Size Analysis and Determination of Soil Constants
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D1293 Test Methods for pH of Water
D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4753 Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves
E145 Specification for Gravity-Convection and Forced-Ventilation Ovens
lime content; lime proportion; pH; soil-lime; soil stabilization; pH--soils; Soil-lime mixtures; Soil stabilization;
ICS Number Code 13.080.20 (Physical properties of soil)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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