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Significance and Use
Flexural properties determined by this test method are especially useful for quality control and specification purposes.
This test method may be more suited for those materials that do not fail within the strain limits imposed by Test Method D790. The major difference between four point and three point bending modes is the location of the maximum bending moment and maximum axial fiber stress. In four point bending the maximum axial fiber stress is uniformly distributed between the loading noses. In three point bending the maximum axial fiber stress is located immediately under the loading nose.
Flexural properties may vary with specimen depth, temperature, atmospheric conditions, and the difference in rate of straining specified in Procedures A and B.
Before proceeding with this test method, reference should be made to the specification of the material being tested. Any test specimen preparation, conditioning, dimensions, or testing parameters covered in the material specification, or both, shall take precedence over those mentioned in this test method. If there are no material specifications, then these default conditions apply. Table 1 in Classification D4000 lists the ASTM materials standards that currently exist.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of flexural properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics, including high-modulus composites and electrical insulating materials in the form of rectangular bars molded directly or cut from sheets, plates, or molded shapes. These test methods are generally applicable to rigid and semirigid materials. However, flexural strength cannot be determined for those materials that do not break or that do not fail in the outer fibers. This test method utilizes a four point loading system applied to a simply supported beam.
1.2 This test method may be used with two procedures:
1.2.1 Procedure A, designed principally for materials that break at comparatively small deflections.
1.2.2 Procedure B, designed particularly for those materials that undergo large deflections during testing.
1.2.3 Procedure A shall be used for measurement of flexural properties, particularly flexural modulus, unless the material specification states otherwise. Procedure B may be used for measurement of flexural strength.
1.3 Comparative tests may be run according to either procedure, provided that the procedure is found satisfactory for the material being tested.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values provided in parentheses are for information only.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Note 1—This test method is equivalent to ISO 14125 (Method B).
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing
D638 Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics
D790 Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials
D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics
D4000 Classification System for Specifying Plastic Materials
D5947 Test Methods for Physical Dimensions of Solid Plastics Specimens
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
ISO StandardISO14125(MethodB) Fibre-Reinforced Plastic Composites--Determination of Flexural Properties
ICS Number Code 29.035.20 (Plastic and rubber insulating materials); 83.080.01 (Plastics in general)