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Significance and Use
This practice is intended for use of scrap tires including: tire derived aggregate (TDA) comprised of pieces of scrap tires, TDA/soil mixtures, tire sidewalls, and whole scrap tires in civil engineering applications. This includes use of TDA and TDA/soil mixtures as lightweight embankment fill, lightweight retaining wall backfill, drainage layers for roads, landfills and other applications, thermal insulation to limit frost penetration beneath roads, insulating backfill to limit heat loss from buildings, vibration damping layers for rail lines, and replacement for soil or rock in other fill applications. Use of whole scrap tires and tire sidewalls includes construction of retaining walls, drainage culverts, road-base reinforcement, and erosion protection, as well as use as fill when whole tires have been compressed into bales. It is the responsibility of the design engineer to determine the appropriateness of using scrap tires in a particular application and to select applicable tests and specifications to facilitate construction and environmental protection. This practice is intended to encourage wider utilization of scrap tires in civil engineering applications.
Three TDA fills with thicknesses in excess of 7 m have experienced a serious heating reaction. However, more than 100 fills with a thickness less than 3 m have been constructed with no evidence of a deleterious heating reaction (1). Guidelines have been developed to minimize internal heating of TDA fills (2) as discussed in 6.11. The guidelines are applicable to fills less than 3 m thick. Thus, this practice should be applied only to TDA fills less than 3 m thick.
1.1 This practice provides guidance for testing the physical properties, design considerations, construction practices, and leachate generation potential of processed or whole scrap tires in lieu of conventional civil engineering materials, such as stone, gravel, soil, sand, lightweight aggregate, or other fill materials.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C127 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
C136 Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
D698 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
D1557 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
D2434 Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head)
D2974 Test Methods for Moisture, Ash, and Organic Matter of Peat and Other Organic Soils
D3080 Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions
D4253 Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials StandardM288 Standard Specification for Geotextiles Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing, Part I: Specifications, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency StandardMethod1311 Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste: Physical/Chemical Methods, 3rd ed., Report No. EPA 530/SW-846, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
ICS Number Code 83.160.01 (Tyres in general)
UNSPSC Code 11140000(Scrap and waste materials)