Significance and Use
5.1 The procedure described in this test method for the shear resistance for the GCL or the GCL interface is intended as a performance test to provide the user with a set of design values for the test conditions examined. The test specimens and conditions, including normal stresses, are generally selected by the user.
5.2 This test method may be used for acceptance testing of commercial shipments of GCLs, but caution is advised as outlined in 5.2.1.
5.2.1 The shear resistance can be expressed only in terms of actual test conditions (see Note 1 and Note 2). The determined value may be a function of the applied normal stress, material characteristics, size of sample, moisture content, drainage conditions, displacement rate, magnitude of displacement, and other parameters.
—In the case of acceptance testing requiring the use of soil, the user must furnish the soil sample, soil parameters, and direct shear test parameters.
—Testing under this test method should be performed by laboratories qualified in the direct shear testing of soils and meeting the requirements of Practice D3740, especially since the test results may depend on site-specific and test conditions.
5.2.2 This test method measures the total resistance to shear within a GCL or between a GCL and adjacent material. The total shear resistance may be a combination of sliding, rolling and interlocking of material components
5.2.3 This test method does not distinguish between individual mechanisms, which may be a function of the soil and GCL used, method of material placement and hydration, normal and shear stresses applied, means used to hold the GCL in place, rate of horizontal displacement, and other factors. Every effort should be made to identify, as closely as is practicable, the sheared area and failure mode of the specimen. Care should be taken, including close visual inspection of the specimen after testing, to ensure that the testing conditions are representative of those being investigated.
5.2.4 Information on precision between laboratories is incomplete. In cases of dispute, comparative tests to determine whether a statistical bias exists between laboratories may be advisable.
5.3 The test results can be used in the design of GCL applications, including but not limited to, the design of liners and caps for landfills, cutoffs for dams, and other hydraulic barriers.
5.4 While the peak strengths and post-peak strengths measured by this test are generally reproducible by multiple laboratories, the displacement at which peak strength and post-peak strength occurs and the shape of the shear stress-horizontal displacement curve may differ considerably from one test device to another due to differences in specimen mounting, gripping surfaces and material preparation. The user of results from this standard is cautioned that results at a specified displacement may not be reproducible across laboratories and that the relative horizontal displacement measured in this test at peak strength may not match relative horizontal displacement at peak strength in a field condition.
1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the internal shear resistance of a Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL) or the interface shear resistance between the GCL and an adjacent material under a constant rate of displacement or constant stress.
1.2 This test method is intended to indicate the performance of the selected specimen by attempting to model certain field conditions.
1.3 This test method is applicable to all GCLs. Remolded or undisturbed soil samples can be used in the test device.
1.4 This test method is not suited for the development of exact stress-strain relationships within the test specimen due to the nonuniform distribution of shearing forces and displacement.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D698 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
D1557 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
D2435 Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading
D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
D3080 Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4439 Terminology for Geosynthetics
D6072 Practice for Obtaining Samples of Geosynthetic Clay Liners
coefficient of friction; direct shear; GCL; interface shear resistance; performance test; shear resistance;
ICS Number Code 19.060 (Mechanical testing)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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