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Significance and Use
This is the first ASTM standard test method for assessing the mass quantity of particulates in middle distillate fuels. Test Method D5452 and its predecessor Test Method D2276 were developed for aviation fuels and used 1 gal or 5 L of fuel sample. Using 1 gal of a middle distillate fuel, which can contain greater particulate levels, often required excessive time to complete the filtration. This test method used about a quarter of the volume used in the aviation fuel methods.
The mass of particulates present in a fuel is a significant factor, along with the size and nature of the individual particles, in the rapidity with which fuel system filters and other small orifices in fuel systems can become plugged. This test method provides a means of assessing the mass of particulates present in a fuel sample.
The test method can be used in specifications and purchase documents as a means of controlling particulate contamination levels in the fuels purchased. Maximum particulate levels are specified in several military fuel specifications.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the mass of particulate contamination in a middle distillate fuel by filtration. This test method is suitable for all No. 1 and No. 2 grades in Specifications D396, D975, D2880 and D3699 and for grades DMA and DMB in Specification D2069.
Note 1—Middle distillate fuels with flash points less than 38°C have been ignited by discharges of static electricity when the fuels have been filtered through inadequately bonded or grounded membrane filter systems. See Test Methods D2276 and D5452 for means of determining particulate contamination in Specification D1655 aviation turbine fuels and other similar aviation fuels. See Guide D4865 for a more detailed discussion of static electricity formation and discharge.
1.3 This test method has not been validated for testing biodiesel, such as meeting Specification D6751 or blends of middle distillates and biodiesel, such as meeting Specification D7467, or both. Test Method D7321 has been determined to be suitable for testing B100 and all blends of middle distillates and biodiesel.
Note 2—No. 1 and No. 2 grades in Specifications D396 or D975 currently allow up to 5% biodiesel meeting Specification D6751. Samples containing biodiesel can result in partial dissolution or compromise of the membrane filters and give erroneous results.
1.4 The precision of this test method is applicable to particulate contaminant levels between 0 to 25 g/m3 provided that 1 L samples are used and the 1 L is filtered completely. Higher levels of particulate contaminant can be measured, but are subject to uncertain precision.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
D396 Specification for Fuel Oils
D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels
D2069 Specification for Marine Fuels
D2276 Test Method for Particulate Contaminant in Aviation Fuel by Line Sampling
D2880 Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils
D3699 Specification for Kerosine
D3828 Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4865 Guide for Generation and Dissipation of Static Electricity in Petroleum Fuel Systems
D5452 Test Method for Particulate Contamination in Aviation Fuels by Laboratory Filtration
D6751 Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels
D7321 Test Method for Test Method for Particulate Contamination of Biodiesel B100 Blend Stock Biodiesel Esters and Biodiesel Blends by Laboratory Filtration
D7467 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oil, Biodiesel Blend (B6 to B20)
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
UNSPSC Code 15101500(Petroleum and distillates)