ASTM D6209 - 13

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Gaseous and Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air (Collection on Sorbent-Backed Filters with Gas Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric Analysis)

    Active Standard ASTM D6209 | Developed by Subcommittee: D22.03

    Book of Standards Volume: 11.07


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as defined by this test method are compounds made up of two or more fused aromatic rings.

    5.2 Several PAH are considered to be probable human carcinogens.

    5.3 PAH are emitted in the atmosphere primarily through wood or fossil fuel combustion.

    5.4 Two- and three-ring PAH are typically present in urban air at concentrations ranging from 10 to several hundred nanograms per cubic metre (ng/m3); those with four or more rings are usually found at concentrations of a few ng/m3 or lower.

    5.5 PAH span a broad spectrum of vapor pressures (for example, from 1.1 × 10–2 kPa for naphthalene to 2 × 10–13 kPa for coronene at 25°C). Table 1 lists some PAH that are frequently found in ambient air. Those with vapor pressures above about 10–8 kPa will be present in the ambient air substantially distributed between the gas and particulate phases. This test method will permit the collection of both phases. However, particulate-phase PAH will tend to be lost from the particulate filter during sampling due to desorption and volatilization.

    TABLE 1 Formulae and Physical Properties of Selective PAH

    Compound
    (Common Name)

    Formula

    Molecular
    Weight

    Melting
    Point,
    °C

    Boiling
    Point,A
    °C

    Vapor
    Pressure,
    kPa at
    25°C

    Naphthalene

    C10H8

    128.18

    80.2

    218

    1.1 × 10 –2

    Acenaphthylene

    C12H8

    152.20

    92-93

    265-280

    3.9 × 10–3

    Acenaphthene

    C12H10

    154.20

    90-96

    278-279

    2.1 × 10–2

    Fluorene

    C13H10

    166.23

    116-118

    293-295

    8.7 × 10–5

    9-Fluorenone

    C13H8O

    180.21

    84

    341.5

    ca.10 –5

    Anthracene

    C14H10

    178.24

    216-219

    340

    3.6 × 10 –6

    Phenanthrene

    C14H10

    178.24

    96-101

    339-340

    2.3 × 10–5

    Fluoranthene

    C16H10

    202.26

    107-111

    375-393

    6.5 × 10–7

    Pyrene

    C16H10

    202.26

    150-156

    360-404

    3.1 × 10–6

    Cyclopental[cd]pyrene

    C18H10

    226.28

    ca. 275?

    ca. 10–7

    Benz[a]anthracene

    C18H12

    228.30

    157-167

    435

    1.5 × 10–8

    Chrysene

    C18H12

    228.30

    252-256

    441-448

    5.7 × 10–10

    Retene

    C18H18

    234.34

    101

    390

    ca. 10–6

    Benzo[b]fluoranthene

    C20H12

    252.32

    167-168

    481

    6.7 × 10–8

    Benzo[k]fluoranthene

    C20H12

    252.32

    198-217

    480-481

    2.1 × 10–8

    Perylene

    C20H12

    252.32

    273-278

    500-503

    7.0 × 10–10

    Benzo[a]pyrene

    C20H12

    252.32

    177-179

    493-496

    7.3 × 10–10

    Benzo[e]pyrene

    C20H12

    252.32

    178-179

    493

    7.4 × 10–10

    Benzo[ghi]perylene

    C22H12

    276.34

    275.278

    525

    1.3 × 10–11

    Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    C22H12

    276.34

    162-163

    ca. 10–11

    Dibenz[ah]anthracene

    C22H14

    278.35

    266-270

    524

    1.3 × 10–11

    Coronene

    C24H12

    300.36

    438-440

    525

    2.0 × 10 –13

    A Many of these compounds sublime.

    5.5.1 The distribution between phases depends on ambient temperature, humidity, types and concentrations of PAH and particulate matter, and residence time in the air. PAH, especially those having vapor pressures above 10–8 kPa, may vaporize from particulate filters during sampling. Consequently, a back-up vapor trap must be used for efficient sampling.

    5.6 Separate analyses of the filter and vapor trap will not reflect the original atmospheric phase distributions and should be discouraged.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method2 specifies sampling, cleanup, and analysis procedures for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air.

    1.2 This test method is designed to collect both gas-phase and particulate-phase PAH and to determine them collectively.

    1.3 This test method is a high-volume sampling (100 to 250 L/min) method capable of detecting PAH at sub-nanograms per cubic metre (ng/m3) concentrations with sampling volumes up to 350 m3 of air.

    1.4 This test method has been validated for sampling periods up to 24 h.

    1.5 Precision and bias under normal conditions can be expected to be ±35 to 50 %.

    1.6 This test method describes a sampling and analysis procedure for PAH that involves collection from air on a combination fine-particle filter and sorbent trap and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

    1.7 The range of this test method is approximately 0.05 to 1000 ng/m3 of air sampled.

    1.8 The values stated in SI units shall be regarded as standard.

    1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See also Section 8 for additional safety precautions.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D1356 Terminology Relating to Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres

    D1357 Practice for Planning the Sampling of the Ambient Atmosphere

    D3631 Test Methods for Measuring Surface Atmospheric Pressure

    E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

    E2251 Specification for Liquid-in-Glass ASTM Thermometers with Low-Hazard Precision Liquids


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.040.20 (Ambient atmospheres)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 12352005(Aromatic or heterocyclic compounds); 81102600(Sampling services)


    DOI: 10.1520/D6209-13

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