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Significance and Use
4.1 This guide assists users in design and development of packaging intended for the protection of goods while they are in transit from point of origin to final destination. By following all steps of this guide, users will be assured that the most important factors are included in package design. In some cases, the sequence of steps may be changed, and often the steps may occur simultaneously with concurrent work activities.
4.2 The design process focuses on protection from hazards of handling, storage, and shipping while recognizing the economics of all other facets of distribution, including packaging materials and labor, and transportation.
1.2 The principal content of this guide is the identification of the key steps involved in development of transport packages, including shipping containers, interior protective packaging, and unit loads. It is recognized that actual usage and application to individual design projects may vary appreciably without diminishing the value of the process. Consult with a packaging professional whenever needed.
1.4 The user of this guide must be aware of the carrier rules regarding packaging for shipment via each mode of transportation in which the transport package may move, such as the National Motor Freight Classification (less-than truckload) and the Uniform Freight Classification (railroad). For hazardous materials packaging, the packaging must perform to the requirements of the applicable modal regulations listed in Section 2.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D642 Test Method for Determining Compressive Resistance of Shipping Containers, Components, and Unit Loads
D880 Test Method for Impact Testing for Shipping Containers and Systems
D996 Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments
D999 Test Methods for Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers
D1974 Practice for Methods of Closing, Sealing, and Reinforcing Fiberboard Boxes
D3332 Test Methods for Mechanical-Shock Fragility of Products, Using Shock Machines
D3580 Test Methods for Vibration (Vertical Linear Motion) Test of Products
D4003 Test Methods for Programmable Horizontal Impact Test for Shipping Containers and Systems
D4169 Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and Systems
D4728 Test Method for Random Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers
D4919 Guide for Testing of Hazardous Materials Packagings
D5276 Test Method for Drop Test of Loaded Containers by Free Fall
D5487 Test Method for Simulated Drop of Loaded Containers by Shock Machines
D6055 Test Methods for Mechanical Handling of Unitized Loads and Large Shipping Cases and Crates
D6179 Test Methods for Rough Handling of Unitized Loads and Large Shipping Cases and Crates
D6344 Test Method for Concentrated Impacts to Transport Packages
D6537 Practice for Instrumented Package Shock Testing For Determination of Package Performance
D6653 Test Methods for Determining the Effects of High Altitude on Packaging Systems by Vacuum Method
D6804 Guide for Hand Hole Design in Corrugated Boxes
D7030 Test Method for Short Term Creep Performance of Corrugated Fiberboard Containers Under Constant Load Using a Compression Test Machine
D7386 Practice for Performance Testing of Packages for Single Parcel Delivery Systems
D7387 Test Method for Vibration Testing of Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) Used for Shipping Liquid Hazardous Materials (Dangerous Goods)
D7660 Guide for Conducting Internal Pressure Tests on United Nations (UN) Packagings
ISO StandardISO4180 Complete Filled Transport Packages--General Rules for the Compilation of Performance Test Schedules Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.
ICS Number Code 55.180.10 (General purpose containers)