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Significance and Use
4.1 Seam engineering, the determination of the best stitch type, seam configuration, and thread type which should be used for a particular assembly, requires a thorough knowledge of many variables. The improper selection of any one component can result in failure of the sewn junction, and ultimately failure of the product manufactured.
4.2 General Characteristics—The characteristics of a properly constructed sewn seam are strength, elasticity, durability, security, and appearance. These characteristics must be balanced with the properties of the material to be joined to form the optimum sewn seam. The end use of the item will govern the relative importance of these characteristics. The selection of the seam type and stitch type should be based upon these considerations.
4.2.1 Strength—The seam efficiency of the sewn seam should be as high as possible. This will produce sewn seam strength with a balanced construction that will withstand the forces encountered in the use of the sewn item. The elements affecting the strength of a sewn seam are:
188.8.131.52 Fabric type and strength,
184.108.40.206 Seam type,
220.127.116.11 Stitch type,
18.104.22.168 Stitch density (spi),
22.214.171.124 Thread tension, and
126.96.36.199 Thread strength.
4.2.2 Elasticity—The elasticity of a sewn seam should be slightly greater than that of the material which it joins. This will enable the material to support its share of the forces encountered for the intended end use of the sewn item. The elasticity of a sewn seam depends upon:
188.8.131.52 Fabric type and strength,
184.108.40.206 Seam type,
220.127.116.11 Stitch type,
18.104.22.168 Stitch density (spi),
22.214.171.124 Thread tension, and
126.96.36.199 Thread elasticity.
4.2.3 Durability—The durability of a sewn seam depends largely upon its strength relative to the elasticity of the seam and the elasticity of the material. However, in less elastic, tightly woven or dense materials, there is a tendency for the plies to “work” or slide on each other. To form a durable sewn seam in these types of fabrics, the thread size must be carefully chosen. The stitch density also needs to be carefully determined for the material so as not to cause excess tension which will unbalance the elasticity and cause puckering. It is also important to minimize abrasion and wear by contact with outside agencies to promote durability.
4.2.4 Security—The security of a sewn seam depends chiefly upon the stitch type, spi, and its susceptibility to become unraveled. The stitch must be well set to the material to prevent snagging that can cause rupture of the thread and unraveling of certain stitch types.
4.2.5 Appearance—The appearance of a sewn seam generally is governed by the proper relationship between the size and type of thread, the stitch density, and the texture and weight of the fabric.
188.8.131.52 In addition to these general characteristics, the technique and skill of the sewing machine operators also govern the appearance of the sewn seams. Some of the factors which will adversely affect the appearance are shown in .
1.1 This practice covers the requirements and characteristics of stitches and seams used in the fabrication of sewn items.
1.2 This practice identifies the category, formation, and general purpose for stitch types and seam types used in the fabrication of sewn items.
1.3 Subsequent to a general discussion of stitches and seams that include schematic indices, this practice is comprised of the following sections that are listed in the order in which they appear:
1.3.1 Section Classification of Stitch Types for which drawings are shown in Stitch — ,
Note 1: This type of stitching shall be produced by folding the edge of the material in an “S” fold with the raw edge turned under to form a finished edge, and stitching through the two folds with one row of stitches.
1.3.3 Seam Assembly Recommendations. —
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles
ICS Number Code 61.020 (Clothes)
UNSPSC Code 53141604(Sewing patterns)
ASTM D6193-16, Standard Practice for Stitches and Seams, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, www.astm.orgBack to Top