Significance and Use
Direct observation of the subsurface by the collection of soil and rock samples is an essential part of site characterization for environmental purposes (see 7.1.7 of Guide D5730). This guide provides information on the major types of soil and rock sampling devices used on drill rigs to assist in selection of devices that are suitable for known site geologic conditions, and provide samples that meet project objectives. This guide should not be used as a substitute for consulting with someone experienced in sampling soil or rock in similar formations before determining the best method and type of sampling.
This guide should be used in conjunction with Guides D2113 and D6151 and drilling method-specific guides (see Guides D5781, D5782, D5783, D5784, D5872, D5875 and D5876) as part of developing a detailed site investigation and sampling plan (see 5.1.5 of Guide D5730) for sites that require mobilization of a drill rig for subsurface investigations. The selection of drilling methods and sampling devices goes hand-in-hand. In some cases soil sample requirements may influence choice of drilling method, or conversely, types of available drill rigs may influence choice of sampling devices.
This guide should be used in conjunction with Guide D5434 for field logging of soil and rock samples, Practice D5911 for data elements to identify a soil sampling site, and where appropriate, Practice D4220, for preserving and transporting soil samples, Practice D5070 for preserving and transporting rock core samples, Practice D3694 for preparation of sample containers and for preservation of organic constituents, and Practice 5088D5088 for decontamination of field equipment used at nonradioactive waste sites.
1.1 This guide covers guidance for the selection of soil and rock sampling devices used with drill rigs for the purpose of characterizing in situ physical and hydraulic properties, chemical characteristics, subsurface lithology, stratigraphy and structure, and hydrogeologic units in environmental investigations.
1.2 This guide does not specifically address selection of soil sampling devices for use with direct-push sampling systems, but the information in this guide on thick-wall and thin-wall samplers is generally applicable to direct-push soil sampling.
1.3 This guide should be used in conjunction with referenced ASTM guides, practices, and methods on drilling techniques for geoenvironmental investigations and use of sampling devices referenced in 2.1, and with Guide D5730.
1.4 This guide does not address selection of sampling devices for hand-held soil sampling equipment, and soil sample collection with solid-stem augering devices, or collection of grab samples or hand-carved block samples from accessible excavations. Refer to Appendix X1.2 for guidance on these topics. This guide should be used in conjunction with Guide D4700 when thin-walled, split barrel, ring-lined barrel and piston samplers with solid- and hollow-stem augers are used in the unsaturated zone.
1.5 This guide does not address devices for collecting cores from submerged sediments or sampling devices for solid wastes. Refer to Guide D4823 for guidance on these topics.
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. However, dimensions of materials used in the drilling industry are given in English units by convention, therefore, English units are used where necessary in this guide.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8 This guide offers an organized collection of information or series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education and experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgement. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D657 Specification for Isopropyl Acetate
D1452 Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
D1586 Test Method for Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
D2113 Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling of Rock for Site Investigation
D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
D3694 Practices for Preparation of Sample Containers and for Preservation of Organic Constituents
D4220 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
D4452 Practice for X-Ray Radiography of Soil Samples
D4700 Guide for Soil Sampling from the Vadose Zone
D4823 Guide for Core Sampling Submerged, Unconsolidated Sediments
D5079 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Rock Core Samples
D5084 Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
D5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
D5434 Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
D5730 Guide for Site Characterization for Environmental Purposes With Emphasis on Soil, Rock, the Vadose Zone and Ground Water
D5781 Guide for Use of Dual-Wall Reverse-Circulation Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5782 Guide for Use of Direct Air-Rotary Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5783 Guide for Use of Direct Rotary Drilling with Water-Based Drilling Fluid for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5784 Guide for Use of Hollow-Stem Augers for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5872 Guide for Use of Casing Advancement Drilling Methods for Geoenvironmental Exploration and Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5875 Guide for Use of Cable-Tool Drilling and Sampling Methods for Geoenvironmental Exploration and Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5876 Guide for Use of Direct Rotary Wireline Casing Advancement Drilling Methods for Geoenvironmental Exploration and Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5911 Practice for Minimum Set of Data Elements to Identify a Soil Sampling Site
D6151 Practice for Using Hollow-Stem Augers for Geotechnical Exploration and Soil Sampling
drilling; environmental site characterization; exploration; feasibility studies; field investigations; geological investigations; groundwater; hydrologic investigations; reconnaissance surveys; sampling; site characterization; site investigations; soil surveys; subsurface investigations: Cross-contamination; Drilling (in soil/rock); Environmental site assessment (ESA); Field investigations; Geological investigations; Ground water; Hydrogeologic models/investigations; Reconnaissance surveys; Rock drilling/coring/investigation; Rock sampling; Site identification/investigation/selection; Soil; Soil sampling; Subsurface investigation--soil/rock;
ICS Number Code 13.080.99 (Other standards related to soil quality); 73.100.99 (Other mining equipment)
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