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Significance and Use
4.1 Compression tests provide information about the compressive properties of plastic lumber and shapes when these products are used under conditions approximating those under which the tests are made. In the case of some materials, there will be a specification that requires the use of this test method, but with some procedural modifications that take precedence when adhering to the specification. Therefore, it is advisable to refer to that material specification before using this test method. Table 1 in Classification D4000 lists the ASTM materials standards that currently exist.
4.2 Compressive properties include modulus of elasticity, secant modulus, compressive strength, and stress at a given strain. In the case of a material that fails in compression by a shattering fracture, the compressive strength has a very definite value. In the case of a material that does not fail in compression by a shattering fracture nor exhibits a compressive yield point, the compressive strength is an arbitrary one depending upon the degree of distortion that is regarded as indicating complete failure. Many plastic lumber materials will not exhibit a true yield point. Compressive strength can have no real meaning in such cases. For plastic lumber, the stress at a given strain of 3 % (0.03 in./in. (mm/mm)) is typically used.
4.3 Compression tests provide a standard method of obtaining data for research and development, quality control, acceptance or rejection under specifications, and special purposes. The tests cannot be considered significant for engineering design in applications differing widely from the load-time scale of the standard test. Such applications require additional tests such as impact, creep, and fatigue.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the mechanical properties of plastic lumber and shapes, when the entire cross-section is loaded in compression at relatively low uniform rates of straining or loading. Test specimens in the “as-manufactured” form are employed. As such, this is a test method for evaluating the properties of plastic lumber or shapes as a product and not a material property test method.
1.2 Plastic lumber and plastic shapes are currently made predominantly with recycled plastics. However, this test method would also be applicable to similar manufactured plastic products made from virgin resins, or where the product is non-homogenous in the cross-section.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing
D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics
D4000 Classification System for Specifying Plastic Materials
D5033 Guide for Development of ASTM Standards Relating to Recycling and Use of Recycled Plastics
D5947 Test Methods for Physical Dimensions of Solid Plastics Specimens
D6111 Test Method for Bulk Density And Specific Gravity of Plastic Lumber and Shapes by Displacement
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
ICS Number Code 83.140.01 (Rubber and plastic products in general)
UNSPSC Code 13100000(Rubber and elastomers)