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Significance and Use
The consistent performance of hydrocarbon lubricant base oils is a critical factor in a wide variety of applications such as engine oils, industrial lubricants, and metalworking fluids. In addition, in many of these applications humans are exposed to the base oils as a component of a formulated product such that health or safety considerations may need to be addressed. This guide suggests a compilation of properties and potential contaminants that are understood by those knowledgeable in the manufacture and use of hydrocarbon lubricants to be of significance in some or all applications. A discussion of each of the suggested properties and potential contaminants is provided in Appendix X1, with each listed alphabetically within four categories.
Potential sources of base oil variation include the raw material, manufacturing process, operating conditions, storage, transportation, and blending.
The test methods, base oil properties, and potential contaminants suggested are those that would likely be useful in many common situations, although it is recognized that there are specific applications and situations that could have different requirements. Performance testing related to the specific application should serve as the basis for acceptability.
Issues such as frequency of testing and the specifics of how the test results are to be applied are not addressed in detail. It is the responsibility of the buyer and seller to determine and agree upon the implementation of this guide. This guide serves as a basis for that discussion.
1.1 This guide suggests physical, chemical, and toxicological test methods for characterizing hydrocarbon lubricant base oils derived from various refining processes including re-refining used oils and refining crude oil. This guide does not purport to cover all tests which could be employed. It is the responsibility of the buyer and seller to determine and agree upon the implementation of this guide.
1.2 This guide applies only to base oils and not to finished lubricants.
1.3 This guide is relevant to base oils composed of hydrocarbons and intended for use in formulating products including automotive and industrial lubricants. These base oils would typically have a viscosity of approximately 2 to 40 mm2/s (cSt) at 100°C (50 to 3740 SUS at 100°F).
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D91 Test Method for Precipitation Number of Lubricating Oils
D92 Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test
D189 Test Method for Conradson Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D524 Test Method for Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products
D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration
D974 Test Method for Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D1401 Test Method for Water Separability of Petroleum Oils and Synthetic Fluids
D1500 Test Method for ASTM Color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale)
D1744 Test Method for Determination of Water in Liquid Petroleum Products by Karl Fischer Reagent
D2007 Test Method for Characteristic Groups in Rubber Extender and Processing Oils and Other Petroleum-Derived Oils by the Clay-Gel Absorption Chromatographic Method
D2270 Practice for Calculating Viscosity Index from Kinematic Viscosity at 40 and 100C
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D2887 Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography
D2896 Test Method for Base Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Perchloric Acid Titration
D3120 Test Method for Trace Quantities of Sulfur in Light Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Oxidative Microcoulometry
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4059 Test Method for Analysis of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Insulating Liquids by Gas Chromatography
D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Lubricants
D4291 Test Method for Trace Ethylene Glycol in Used Engine Oil
D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D4530 Test Method for Determination of Carbon Residue (Micro Method)
D4628 Test Method for Analysis of Barium, Calcium, Magnesium, and Zinc in Unused Lubricating Oils by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
D4629 Test Method for Trace Nitrogen in Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Syringe/Inlet Oxidative Combustion and Chemiluminescence Detection
D4739 Test Method for Base Number Determination by Potentiometric Hydrochloric Acid Titration
D4927 Test Methods for Elemental Analysis of Lubricant and Additive Components--Barium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Zinc by Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
D4929 Test Methods for Determination of Organic Chloride Content in Crude Oil
D4951 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements in Lubricating Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry
D5185 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements, Wear Metals, and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils and Determination of Selected Elements in Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
D5480 Test Method for Engine Oil Volatility by Gas Chromatography
D7042 Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)
E1687 Test Method for Determining Carcinogenic Potential of Virgin Base Oils in Metalworking Fluids
ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)
UNSPSC Code 15120000(Lubricants and oils and greases and anticorrosives)
ASTM D6074-08, Standard Guide for Characterizing Hydrocarbon Lubricant Base Oils, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.orgBack to Top