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Significance and Use
4.1 These test methods are designed for use in most cases with the actual equipment to be used in load handling.
4.2 These test methods may be used in evaluating the shipping unit as to suitability for mechanical handling by standard user-specified load-handling equipment.
4.3 These test methods will allow the user to determine integrity and stability of the load as well as provide guidance to improve the design of the unit load where deficiencies are found.
4.4 Damage to products or packages observed during testing may be expected to correlate at least in a qualitative way to damage observed in actual distribution handling systems.
1.1 These test methods are suitable for testing the integrity of unitized loads and large cases and crates, but not individual drums or palletized drums, as well as the ability of the contents to endure normal handling, using standard mechanical handling equipment. Not all of the test methods are applicable to all products containers and loads. These test methods are applicable to common means of material handling, including pull pack, clamp truck, and spade lift-type handling equipment as follows:
1.1.1 Test Method A——Fork Truck Handling—For testing the ability of the shipping unit to withstand repeated handlings by this test method.
1.1.2 Test Method B—Spade Lift Test—For lifting by spade lift attachment to determine the ability of the handling flap of the case or shipping unit to withstand repeated lifting and handling by this test method.
1.1.3 Test Method C—Clamp Handling Test—For lifting by hydraulic clamp attachment, to determine the ability of the shipping unit to withstand squeeze clamp handling consisting of repeated side compression and lifting.
1.1.4 Test Method D—Push-Pull Handling Test—For testing the ability of a unitized load on a slip-sheet to withstand repeated handling by this test method.
1.1.5 Test Method E—Grabhook Test—For lifting by grabhooks to determine the ability of the shipping unit to withstand the horizontal pressures of grabhooks.
1.1.6 Test Method F—Sling Tests—For lifting by wire rope, cable, or woven fiber slings to determine the ability of the shipping unit to withstand the compression of slings.
1.2 Additional Test Methods:
1.2.1 Additional test methods that apply to mechanical handling and rough handling tests of unitized loads and large cases and crates include incline impact tests, described in Test Method D880; horizontal impact tests, described in Test Method D4003.
1.2.2 Practice D4169 provides a series of options for selecting and running performance tests on all types of shipping containers and systems.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D880 Test Method for Impact Testing for Shipping Containers and Systems
D996 Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments
D4003 Test Methods for Programmable Horizontal Impact Test for Shipping Containers and Systems
D4169 Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and Systems
D4332 Practice for Conditioning Containers, Packages, or Packaging Components for Testing
ICS Number Code 55.160 (Cases. Boxes. Crates); 55.180.99 (Other standards related to freight distribution of goods)