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Significance and Use
This guide is intended to provide guidance for sampling waste piles. It can be used to obtain samples for waste characterization related to use, treatment, or disposal; to monitor an active pile; to prepare for closure of the waste pile; or to investigate the contents of an abandoned pile.
Techniques used to sample include both in-place evaluations of the pile and physically removing a sample. In-place evaluations include techniques such as remote sensing, on-site gas analysis, and permeability.
Sampling strategy for waste piles is dependent on the following:
Project objectives including acceptable levels of error when making decisions;
Physical characteristics of the pile, such as its size and configuration, access to all parts of it, and the stability of the pile;
Process that generated the waste and the waste characteristics, such as hazardous chemical or physical properties, whether the waste consists of sludges, dry powders, granules or larger grained materials, and the heterogeneity of the wastes;
History of the pile, including dates of generation, methods of handling and transport, and current management methods;
Regulatory considerations, such as regulatory classification and characterization data;
Limits and bias of sampling methods, including bias that may be introduced by waste heterogeneity, sampling design, and sampling equipment.
It is recommended that this guide be used in conjunction with Guide D4687, which addresses sampling design, quality assurance, general sampling considerations, preservation and containerization, cleaning equipment, packaging, and chain of custody.
A case history of the investigation of a waste pile is included in Appendix X1.
1.1 This guide provides guidance for obtaining representative samples from waste piles. Guidance is provided for site evaluation, sampling design, selection of equipment, and data interpretation.
1.2 Waste piles include areas used primarily for waste storage or disposal, including above-grade dry land disposal units. This guide can be applied to sampling municipal waste piles.
1.3 This guide addresses how the choice of sampling design and sampling methods depends on specific features of the pile.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4.1 Exception—The inch-pound units in parentheses are included for information only and are not considered standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1452 Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
D1586 Test Method for Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
D4547 Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds
D4687 Guide for General Planning of Waste Sampling
D4700 Guide for Soil Sampling from the Vadose Zone
D4823 Guide for Core Sampling Submerged, Unconsolidated Sediments
D5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
D5314 Guide for Soil Gas Monitoring in the Vadose Zone
D5451 Practice for Sampling Using a Trier Sampler
D5518 Guide for Acquisition of File Aerial Photography and Imagery for Establishing Historic Site-Use and Surficial Conditions
D5681 Terminology for Waste and Waste Management
D5730 Guide for Site Characterization for Environmental Purposes With Emphasis on Soil, Rock, the Vadose Zone and Groundwater
ICS Number Code 13.030.40 (Installations and equipment for waste disposal and treatment)