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Significance and Use
3.1 The reference immersion oils described in this practice are required for the development of oil-resistant rubber compounds for use in environments where contact with petroleum-based solvents and oils is encountered. Tests for tensile strength, percent elongation at break, hardness, and percent volume swell are performed after a specified immersion time period (at a specified temperature) in the evaluation of oil-resistant rubbers. The results of such testing by rubber product manufacturers and their customers are used to develop oil-resistant rubbers or compounds, or both.
3.2 Testing with ASTM Oils No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 is used to verify compliance with purchase specifications which reference the oil-resistant classes of rubbers and elastomers listed in Table 6 of Classification D2000. These oils are also used in comparative performance evaluation testing of O-rings and O-ring compounds as cited in Test Methods D1414. The use of these reference oils is required for the development and selection of oil-resistant rubber compounds having acceptable or optimum performance characteristics, or both.
1.1 This practice covers three immersion oils to be used as replacements for ASTM No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 immersion oils as called for in Test Method D471. The immersion oils will be designated as IRM 901 as a replacement for ASTM No. 1 oil, IRM 902 as a replacement for ASTM No. 2 oil, and IRM 903 as a replacement for ASTM No. 3 oil. The new reference oils have been developed under a new Committee D11 policy on reference materials (see Practice D4678 for background on the new policy and procedures).
1.2 The oils, IRM 901, IRM 902, and IRM 903, are similar but not fully equivalent to ASTM No.1, ASTM No. 2, and ASTM No. 3 oil, respectively. Refer to Table 1 for a description of the typical properties and specifications for these oils.
1.3 This practice gives the necessary background and details on the changeover from the previous oils to the new oils. See Annex A1 for additional information on the commercial oils selected to replace ASTM No. 2 and No. 3 oil and the test program conducted for this selection process. The changeover from ASTM to IRM oils is proposed in two steps:
1.3.1 Step 1—A transition phase that makes use of the Equivalent Volume Swell (EVS) for each of the two replacement oils. EVS(902) is the ASTM No. 2 percent volume swell value calculated from the measured percent volume swell value using IRM 902 as the immersion liquid. A similar calculation can be used to calculate the analogous EVS(903) and EVS(903) values. The EVS value is obtained as a correction of the measured IRM 901, 902, or 903 percent volume swell value. The EVS values may be used to determine if volume swell specifications are met when the specifications are expressed in terms of ASTM No. 1, No. 2, or No. 3 limits, and
1.3.2 Step 2—A longer term policy change or conversion of specifications from ASTM No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 values to IRM 901, 902, and 903 values.
1.4 The EVS values are calculated on the basis of “correction equations” derived from one of two sources.
1.4.1 Correction equations derived from the results of the comprehensive evaluation program conducted to select each of the two replacement oils from a group of three candidate oils for ASTM No. 2 and No. 3 oils. This program is described in Annex A1.
1.4.2 Correction equations derived from in-house customized or specific testing programs to make direct comparisons of the volume swell (and other important properties) of the IRM and ASTM oils. These programs should be conducted in each laboratory of those organizations that engage in producer-user specification testing for rubber immersion performance.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D92 Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D287 Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method)
D412 Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers--Tension
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D471 Test Method for Rubber Property--Effect of Liquids
D611 Test Methods for Aniline Point and Mixed Aniline Point of Petroleum Products and Hydrocarbon Solvents
D1414 Test Methods for Rubber O-Rings
D1418 Practice for Rubber and Rubber Latices--Nomenclature
D1500 Test Method for ASTM Color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale)
D1747 Test Method for Refractive Index of Viscous Materials
D2000 Classification System for Rubber Products in Automotive Applications
D2008 Test Method for Ultraviolet Absorbance and Absorptivity of Petroleum Products
D2140 Practice for Calculating Carbon-Type Composition of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin
D2240 Test Method for Rubber Property--Durometer Hardness
D4483 Practice for Evaluating Precision for Test Method Standards in the Rubber and Carbon Black Manufacturing Industries
D4678 Practice for Rubber--Preparation, Testing, Acceptance, Documentation, and Use of Reference Materials
ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)
UNSPSC Code 13101607(Rubber compound)