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Significance and Use
The proper use of analytical data requires adequate documentation of all inputs, that is, the source and history of the sample, laboratory performing the analysis, method of analysis, date of analysis, precision and bias of the measurements, and related quality assurance information.
In order to have defensible data, the report must be complete and accurate, providing adequate information to evaluate the quality of the data and contain supporting information that documents sampling and analysis procedures.
This guide contains some of the common data qualifiers or “flags” commonly used by laboratories following the Good Laboratory Practices, the Government Contract program, or found in the commercial laboratories. Examples of these qualifiers are the use of (E) for estimated value, (U) for analyzed for but not detected, and (B) for analyte was found in the blank (see 8.11). The qualifiers included in this guide should help the laboratory and its customers to better understand each other by using standardized qualifiers.
Practice D933 is a comprehensive practice for reporting water-formed constituents such as metal oxides, acid anhydrides, and others.
1.1 This guide provides guidelines for reporting inorganic and organic results of analyses of drinking water, waste water, process water, ground water, and surface water, and so forth, to laboratory clients in a complete and systematic fashion.
1.2 The reporting of bacterial and radiological data are not addressed in this guide.
1.3 The commonly used data qualifiers for reviewing and reporting information are listed and defined. Client and laboratory specific requirements may make use of other qualifiers. This guide does not preclude the use of other data qualifiers.
1.4 This guide discusses procedures for and specific problems in the reporting of low level data, potential errors (Type I and Type II), and reporting data that are below the calculated method detection limit and above the analyte.
1.4.1 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D933 Practice for Reporting Results of Examination and Analysis of Water-Formed Deposits
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D2777 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias of Applicable Test Methods of Committee D19 on Water
D3856 Guide for Management Systems in Laboratories Engaged in Analysis of Water
D4210 Practice for Intralaboratory Quality Control Procedures and a Discussion on Reporting Low-Level Data
D4460 Practice for Calculating Precision Limits Where Values are Calculated from Other Test Methods
D4840 Guide for Sample Chain-of-Custody Procedures
D5792 Practice for Generation of Environmental Data Related to Waste Management Activities: Development of Data Quality Objectives
D6091 Practice for 99 %/95 % Interlaboratory Detection Estimate (IDE) for Analytical Methods with Negligible Calibration Error
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
ICS Number Code 13.060.45 (Examination of water in general)