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1.1 This test method covers an index method that enables the evaluation of swelling properties of a clay mineral in reagent water for estimation of its usefulness for permeability or hydraulic conductivity reduction in geosynthetic clay liners (GCL).
1.2 It is adapted from United States Pharmacopeia (USP) test method for bentonite.
1.3 Powdered clay mineral is tested after drying to constant weight at 105 ± 5°C; granular clay mineral should be ground to a 100 % passing a 100 mesh U.S. Standard Sieve with a minimum of 65 % passing a 200 mesh U.S. Standard Sieve. The bentonite passing the 100 mesh U.S. Standard Sieve is used for testing after drying to constant weight at 105 ± 5°C.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Section 7.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D4643 Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by Microwave Oven Heating
D4753 Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
E145 Specification for Gravity-Convection and Forced-Ventilation Ovens
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
E725 Test Method for Sampling Granular Carriers and Granular Pesticides
United States Pharmacopeia StandardUSP-NF-XVII Bentonite Available from U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP), 12601 Twinbrook Pkwy., Rockville, MD 20852.
ICS Number Code 17.120.01 (Measurement of fluid flow in general); 59.080.70 (Geotextiles)
UNSPSC Code 11111804(Bentonite)