Significance and Use
5.1 Wireline casing advancement may be used in support of geoenvironmental exploration and for installation of subsurface monitoring devices in both unconsolidated and consolidated materials. Use of direct-rotary wireline casing-advancement drilling methods with fluids are applicable to a wide variety of consolidated or unconsolidated materials as long as fluid circulation can be maintained. Wireline casing-advancement drilling offers the advantages of high drilling-penetration rates in a wide variety of materials with the added benefit of the large-diameter drilling rod serving as protective casing. Wireline coring does not require tripping in and out of the hole each time a core is obtained. The drill rods need only be removed when the coring bit is worn or damaged or if the inner core barrel becomes stuck in the outer barrel.
5.1.1 Wireline casing advancers may be adapted for use with circulating air under pressure for sampling water-sensitive materials where fluid exposure may alter the core or in cavernous materials or lost circulation occurs (1, 2). Several advantages of using the air-rotary drilling method over other methods may include the ability to drill rather rapidly through consolidated materials and, in many instances, not require the introduction of drilling fluids to the borehole. Air-rotary drilling techniques are usually employed to advance the borehole when water-sensitive materials (that is, friable sandstones or collapsible soils) may preclude use of water-based rotary-drilling methods. Some disadvantages to air-rotary drilling may include poor borehole integrity in unconsolidated materials when casing is not used and the possible volatilization of contaminants and air-borne dust. Air drilling may not be satisfactory in unconsolidated or cohesionless soils, or both, when drilling below the groundwater table. In some instances, water or foam additives, or both, may be injected into the air stream to improve cuttings-lifting capacity and cuttings return. Use of water or other additives, or both, should be documented. The use of air under high pressures may cause fracturing of the formation materials or extreme erosion of the borehole if drilling pressures and techniques are not carefully maintained and monitored. If borehole damage becomes apparent, other drilling method(s) should be considered.
5.1.2 When air is used as the circulating fluid, the user should consult Refs (1, 2) and Guide D5782.
5.2 The application of wireline casing advancement to geoenvironmental exploration may involve sampling of groundwater, soil, or rock; or in-situ or pore-fluid testing; or installation of other casings for subsequent drilling activities in unconsolidated or consolidated materials.
5.3 The wireline drill rod can act as a temporary casing and may be used to facilitate the installation of a monitoring device. The monitoring device may be installed as the drill rod is removed from the drill hole.
—The user may install a monitoring device within the same drill hole wherein sampling or in-situ testing was performed.
5.4 Wireline casing-advancement rotary-drilling methods use fluid or air circulation to lubricate cutting bits and for removal of drill cuttings. In many cases, additives are added to improve circulation, cuttings return, borehole wall stabilization, and sealing of the borehole wall from fluid loss. The use of fluid or air under high pressures may allow for damage to formation materials by fracturing or excessive erosion if drilling conditions are not carefully maintained and monitored. If undesirable formation damage is occurring or evident, other drilling method(s) should be considered.
1.1 This guide covers how direct (straight) wireline rotary casing advancement drilling and sampling procedures may be used for geoenvironmental exploration and installation of subsurface water-quality monitoring devices.
—The term “direct” with respect to the rotary drilling method of this guide indicates that a water-based drilling fluid or air is injected through a drill-rod column to rotating bit(s) or coring bit. The fluid or air cools the bit(s) and transports cuttings to the surface in the annulus between the drill rod column and the borehole wall.
—This guide does not include all of the procedures for fluid rotary systems which are addressed in a separate guide, Guide D5783.
1.2 The term “casing advancement” is sometimes used to describe rotary wireline drilling because at any time, the center pilot bit or core barrel assemblies may be removed and the large inside diameter drill rods can act as a temporary casing for testing or installation of monitoring devices. This guide addresses casing-advancement equipment in which the drill rod (casing) is advanced by rotary force applied to the bit with application of static downforce to aid in the cutting process.
1.3 This guide includes several forms of rotary wireline drilling configurations. General borehole advancement may be performed without sampling by using a pilot roller cone or drag bit until the desired depth is reached. Alternately, the material may be continuously or incrementally sampled by replacing the pilot bit with a core-barrel assembly designed for coring either rock or soil. Rock coring should be performed in accordance with Practice D2113.
1.4 The values stated in both inch-pound and SI units are to be regarded separately as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.5 Direct rotary wireline drilling methods for geoenvironmental exploration will often involve safety planning, administration, and documentation. This guide does not purport to specifically address exploration and site safety.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D1452 Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
D1586 Test Method for Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
D2113 Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling of Rock for Site Investigation
D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
D4630 Test Method for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Low-Permeability Rocks by In Situ Measurements Using the Constant Head Injection Test
D4631 Test Method for Determining Transmissivity and Storativity of Low Permeability Rocks by In Situ Measurements Using Pressure Pulse Technique
D5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
D5092 Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells
D5099 Test Methods for Rubber--Measurement of Processing Properties Using Capillary Rheometry
D5782 Guide for Use of Direct Air-Rotary Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5783 Guide for Use of Direct Rotary Drilling with Water-Based Drilling Fluid for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
drilling; geoenvironmental exploration; groundwater; vadose zone; wireline drilling method ;
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