Significance and Use
Cable-tool rigs (also referred to as churn rigs, water-well drilling rigs, spudders, or percussion rigs) are used in the oil fields and in the water-well industry. The Chinese developed the percussion method some 4000 years ago.
Cable-tool drilling and sampling methods may be used in support of geoenvironmental exploration and for installation of subsurface water-quality monitoring devices in both unconsolidated and consolidated materials. Cable-tool drilling and sampling may be selected over other methods based on its advantages, some of which are its high mobility, low water use, low operating cost, and low maintenance. Cable-tool drilling is the most widely available casing-advancement method that is restricted to the drilling of unconsolidated materials and softer rocks.
The application of cable-tool drilling and sampling to geoenvironmental exploration may involve sampling unconsolidated materials. Depth of drill holes may exceed 3000 ft (914 m) and may be limited by the length of cable attached to the bull reel. However, most drill holes for geoenvironmental exploration rarely are required to go that deep. Rates for cable-tool drilling and sampling can vary from a general average of as much as 25 to 30 ft/h (7.6 to 9 m/h) including setting 8 in. (2.4 m) diameter casing to considerably less than that depending on the type(s) of material drilled, and the type and condition of the equipment and rig used.
Note 2—As a general rule, cable-tool rigs are used to sample the surficial materials, and to set surface casing in order that rotary-core rigs subsequently may be set up on the drill hole to core drill hard rock if coring is required.
The cable-tool rig may be used to facilitate the installation of a subsurface water-quality monitoring device(s) including in-situ testing devices. The monitoring device(s) may be installed through the casing as the casing is removed from the borehole. The sand line can be used to raise, lower, or set in-situ testing device(s), or all of these. If necessary, the casing may also be left in the borehole as part of the device.
Note 3—The user may install a monitoring device within the same borehole wherein sampling, in-situ, or pore-fluid testing, or coring was performed.
1.1 This guide covers cable-tool drilling and sampling procedures used for geoenvironmental exploration and installation of subsurface water-quality monitoring devices.
1.2 Several sampling methods exist for obtaining samples from drill holes for geoenvironmental purposes and subsequent laboratory testing. Selection of a particular drilling procedure should be made on the basis of sample types needed and geohydrologic conditions observed at the study site.
1.3 Drilling procedures for geoenvironmental exploration often will involve safety planning, administration and documentation. This guide does not purport to specifically address exploration and site safety.
Note 1—This guide does not include considerations for geotechnical site characterizations that are addressed in a separate guide.
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI units given in parentheses are for information only.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.6 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D1452 Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
D1586 Test Method for Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
D4428/D4428M Test Methods for Crosshole Seismic Testing
D5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
cable-tool drilling; drilling method; geoenvironmental exploration; groundwater; vadose zone: Cable-tool drilling methods; Direct rotary drilling; Drilling (in soil/rock); Geoenvironmental applications/exploration; Ground-water monitoring/sampling; Installation--ground water/subsurface devices/applications; Vadose zone monitoring;
ICS Number Code 13.060.10 (Water of natural resources)
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