Significance and Use
Casing advancement may be used in support of geoenvironmental exploration and for installation of subsurface water-quality monitoring devices in both unconsolidated and consolidated materials. Casing-advancement systems and procedures used for geoenvironmental exploration and instrumentation installations consist of direct air-rotary drilling utilizing conventional rotary bits or a down-the-hole hammer drill with underreaming capability, in combination with a drill-through casing driver.
Note 1—Direct air-rotary drilling uses pressured air for circulation of drill cuttings. In some instances, water or foam additives, or both, may be injected into the air stream to improve cuttings-lifting capacity and cuttings return. The use of air under high pressures may cause fracturing of the formation materials or extreme erosion of the borehole if drilling pressures and techniques are not carefully maintained and monitored. If borehole damage becomes apparent, consideration to other drilling method(s) should be given.
Casing-advancement methods allow for installation of subsurface water-quality monitoring devices and collection of water-quality samples at any depth(s) during drilling.
Other advantages of casing-advancement drilling methods include: the capability of drilling without the introduction of any drilling fluid(s) to the subsurface; maintenance of hole stability for sampling purposes and monitor-well installation/construction in poorly-indurated to unconsolidated materials.
The user of casing-advancement drilling for geoenvironmental exploration and monitoring-device installations should be cognizant of both the physical (temperature and airborne particles) and chemical (compressor lubricants and possible fluid additives) qualities of compressed air that may be used as the circulating medium.
The application of casing-advancement drilling to geoenvironmental exploration may involve soil or rock sampling, or in-situ soil, rock, or pore-fluid testing. The user may install a monitoring device within the same borehole wherein sampling, in-situ or pore-fluid testing, or coring was performed.
The subsurface water-quality monitoring devices that are addressed in this guide consist generally of a screened- or porous-intake device and riser pipe(s) that are usually installed with a filter pack to enhance the longevity of the intake unit, and with isolation seals and low-permeability backfill to deter the movement of fluids or infiltration of surface water between hydrologic units penetrated by the borehole (see Practice D5092). Inasmuch as a piezometer is primarily a device used for measuring subsurface hydraulic heads, the conversion of a piezometer to a water-quality monitoring device should be made only after consideration of the overall quality and integrity of the installation to include the quality of materials that will contact sampled water or gas. Both water-quality monitoring devices and piezometers should have adequate casing seals, annular isolation seals and backfills to deter communication of contaminants between hydrologic units.
1.1 This guide covers how casing-advancement drilling and sampling procedures may be used for geoenvironmental exploration and installation of subsurface water-quality monitoring devices.
1.2 Different methods exist to advance casing for geoenvironmental exploration. Selection of a particular method should be made on the basis of geologic conditions at the site. This guide does not include procedures for wireline rotary casing advancer systems which are addressed in Guide D5786.
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound or SI units are to be regarded separately as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.4 Casing-advancement drilling methods for geoenvironmental exploration and monitoring-device installations will often involve safety planning, administration and documentation. This guide does not purport to specifically address exploration and site safety.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.6 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D2113 Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling of Rock for Site Investigation
D4428/D4428M Test Methods for Crosshole Seismic Testing
D5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
D5092 Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells
D5434 Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
D5521 Guide for Development of Ground-Water Monitoring Wells in Granular Aquifers
D5782 Guide for Use of Direct Air-Rotary Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D5786 Practice for (Field Procedure) for Constant Drawdown Tests in Flowing Wells for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifer Systems
casing-advancement drilling method(s); direct air rotary drilling; down-the-hole hammer (DTH); drill through casing hammer; drilling; groundwater: Casing advancement; Direct rotary drilling; Down-the-hole hammer (DTH) drilling; Drilling (in soil/rock); Geoenvironmental applications/exploration; Ground-water monitoring/sampling; Hammer method; Installation--ground water/subsurface devices/applications;
ICS Number Code 13.060.10 (Water of natural resources)
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