Significance and Use
When fuels are combusted, metals present in the fuels can form low melting compounds that are corrosive to metal parts. Metals present at trace levels in petroleum can deactivate catalysts during processing. These test methods provide a means of quantitatively determining the concentrations of vanadium, nickel, iron, and sodium. Thus, these test methods can be used to aid in determining the quality and value of the crude oil and residual oil.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of nickel, vanadium, iron, and sodium in crude oils and residual fuels by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Two different test methods are presented.
1.2 Test Method A, Sections 7–13—Flame AAS is used to analyze a sample that is decomposed with acid for the determination of total Ni, V, and Fe.
1.3 Test Method B, Sections 14–19—Flame AAS is used to analyze a sample diluted with an organic solvent for the determination of Ni, V, and Na. This test method uses oil-soluble metals for calibration to determine dissolved metals and does not purport to quantitatively determine nor detect insoluble particulates. Hence, this test method may underestimate the metal content, especially sodium, present as inorganic sodium salts.
1.4 The concentration ranges covered by these test methods are determined by the sensitivity of the instruments, the amount of sample taken for analysis, and the dilution volume. A specific statement is given in Note 1.
1.5 For each element, each test method has its own unique precision. The user can select the appropriate test method based on the precision required for the specific analysis.
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific warning statements are given in 7.1, 8.2, 8.5, 10.2, 10.4, and 15.1.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D6299 Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance
AAS; atomic absorption spectrometry; iron; nickel; sodium; vanadium; Acid decomposition; Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS); Crude petroleum products; FAAS (flame atomic absorption spectrometry); Iron content--petroleum products; Nickel content--petroleum products; Organic solvents; Residual fuel oils; Sodium content--petroleum products; Vanadium content--petroleum products;
ICS Number Code 75.040 (Crude petroleum)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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