Significance and Use
5.1 This test method is one of several available for determining vertical anisotropy ratio. Among other available methods are Weeks ((5); see Test Method D5473), that relies on distance-drawdown data, and Way and McKee (6), that utilizes time-drawdown data. An important restriction of the Weeks distance-drawdown method is that the observation wells must have identical construction (screened intervals) and two or more of the observation wells must be located at a distance from the pumped well beyond the effects of partial penetration. The procedure described in this test method general distance-drawdown method, in that it works in theory for any observation well configuration incorporating three or more wells, provided some of the wells are within the zone where flow is affected by partial penetration.
5.2.1 Control well discharges at a constant rate, Q.
5.2.2 Control well is of infinitesimal diameter and partially penetrates the aquifer.
5.2.3 Data are obtained from a number of partially penetrating observation wells, some screened at elevations similar to that in the pumped well and some screened at different elevations.
5.2.4 The aquifer is confined, homogeneous and areally extensive. The aquifer may be anisotropic, and, if so, the directions of maximum and minimum hydraulic conductivity are horizontal and vertical, respectively.
5.2.5 Discharge from the well is derived exclusively from storage in the aquifer.
5.3 Calculation Requirements—Application of this method is computationally intensive. The function, fs, shown in (Eq 4) must be evaluated numerous times using arbitrary input parameters. It is not practical to use existing, somewhat limited, tables of values for fs and, because this equation is rather formidable, it is not readily tractable by hand. Because of this, it is assumed the practitioner using this test method will have available a computerized procedure for evaluating the function fs. This can be accomplished using commercially available mathematical software including some spreadsheet applications, or by writing programs in languages such as Fortran or C.
1.1 This test method covers an analytical procedure for determining the transmissivity, storage coefficient, and ratio of vertical to horizontal hydraulic conductivity of a confined aquifer using observation well drawdown measurements from a constant-rate pumping test. This test method uses data from a minimum of four partially penetrating, properly positioned observation wells around a partially penetrating control well.
1.2 The analytical procedure is used in conjunction with the field procedure in Test Method D4050.
1.3 Limitations—The limitations of the technique for determination of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of aquifers are primarily related to the correspondence between the field situation and the simplifying assumption of this test method.
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI units given in parentheses are for information only.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D4050 Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Withdrawal and Injection Well Tests for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifer Systems
D5473 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure for) Analyzing the Effects of Partial Penetration of Control Well and Determining the Horizontal and Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity in a Nonleaky Confined Aquifer
anisotropy; aquifers; aquifer tests; control wells; groundwater; hydraulic conductivity; observation well; storage coefficient; transmissivity;
ICS Number Code 13.060.10 (Water of natural resources); 73.100.30 (Equipment for drilling and mine excavation)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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