ASTM D5836 - 08(2013)

    Standard Test Method for Determination of 2,4-Toluene Diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) and 2,6-Toluene Diisocyanate (2,6-TDI) in Workplace Atmospheres (1-2 PP Method)

    Active Standard ASTM D5836 | Developed by Subcommittee: D22.04

    Book of Standards Volume: 11.07


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 Diisocyanates are used in the production of polyurethane foams, plastics, elastomers, surface coatings, and adhesives (5,6). It has been estimated that the production of TDI will steadily increase during the future years.

    5.2 Diisocyanates are irritants to eyes, skin, and mucous membrane and are respiratory sensitizers. Chronic exposure to low concentrations of diisocyanates produces an allergic sensitization which may progress into asthmatic bronchitis (7,8).

    5.3 The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has a permissible exposure limit (PEL) for 2,4-TDI of 0.02 ppm or 0.14 mg/m3 as a ceiling limit. There is no OSHA PEL for 2,6–TDI(9). The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has a time–weighted average (TWA) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 0.005 ppm or 0.036 mg/m3 and a short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 0.02 ppm or 0.14 mg/m3 for either 2,4–TDI, or 2,6–TDI, or for a mixture of 2,4– and 2,6–TDI(10).

    5.4 This proposed test method has been found satisfactory for measuring 2,4 and 2,6-TDI levels in the workplace.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (2,6-TDI) in air samples collected from workplace atmospheres in a cassette containing a glass-fiber filter impregnated with 1-(2-pyridyl)piperazine (1-2 PP). This procedure is very effective for determining the vapor content of atmospheres. Atmospheres containing aerosols may cause TDI results to be underestimated.

    1.2 This test method uses a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence or an ultraviolet (UV) detector (1-4).2,3

    1.3 The validated range of the test method, as written, is from 1.4 to 5.6 μg of 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI which is equivalent to approximately 9.8 to 39 ppb for 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI based on a 20-L air sample. The HPLC method using an UV detector is capable of detecting 0.078 μg of 2,4-TDI and 0.068 μg of 2,6-TDI in a 4.0-mL solvent volume, which is equivalent to 0.55 ppb for 2,4-TDI and 0.48 ppb for 2,6-TDI based on a 20-L air sample.

    1.4 The isomers of 2,4-TDI, and 2,6-TDI, can be separated utilizing a reversed phase column for the HPLC method. Because industrial applications employ an isomeric mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI, the ability to achieve this separation is important.

    1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See Section 9 for specific precautions.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D1356 Terminology Relating to Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres

    D1357 Practice for Planning the Sampling of the Ambient Atmosphere

    D3686 Practice for Sampling Atmospheres to Collect Organic Compound Vapors (Activated Charcoal Tube Adsorption Method)

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 93141808(Occupational health or safety services); 77100000(Environmental management)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D5836-08R13

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D5836-08(2013), Standard Test Method for Determination of 2,4-Toluene Diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) and 2,6-Toluene Diisocyanate (2,6-TDI) in Workplace Atmospheres (1-2 PP Method), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, www.astm.org

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