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Significance and Use
4.1 Designers/specifiers of geosynthetics should evaluate geosynthetic durability as an integral part of the geosynthetic specification/selection process. This guide is intended to guide a designer/specifier through a systematic determination of degradation concerns based on the intended geosynthetic function or performance characteristic. This guide then provides a guide to select available test methods for experimentally evaluating geosynthetic durability and to identify areas where no suitable test exists.
1.1 This guide covers a designer/specifier through a systematic determination of those factors of the appropriate application environment that may affect the post-construction service life of a geosynthetic. Subsequently, test methods are recommended to facilitate an experimental evaluation of the durability of geosynthetics in a specified environment so that the durability can be considered in the design process.
ContainmentB (C)—A geosynthetic provides containment when it encapsulates or surrounds materials such as sand, rocks, and fresh concrete.C
FiltrationA (F)—A geosynthetic performs the filtration function when the equilibrium geotextile-to-soil system allows for adequate liquid flow with limited soil loss across the plane of the geotextile over a service lifetime compatible with the application under consideration.
Fluid BarrierA (FB)—A geosynthetic performs the fluid barrier function when it essentially eliminates the migration of fluids through it.
Fluid TransmissionA (a.k.a. drainage)—A geosynthetic performs the fluid transmission function when the equilibrium geotextile-to-soil system allows for adequate flow with limited soil loss within the plane of the geotextile over a service lifetime compatible with the application under consideration.
InsulationB (I)—A geosynthetic provides insulation when it reduces the passage of heat, electricity, or sound.
ProtectionA (P)—A geosynthetic, placed between two materials, performs the protection function when it alleviates or distributes stresses and strains transmitted to the material to be protected.
ReinforcementA (R)—A geosynthetic performs the reinforcement function when it provides often synergistic improvement of a total system's strength created by the introduction of a tensile force into a soil (good in compression but poor in tension) or other disjointed and separated material.
ScreeningB (Scr)—A geosynthetic, placed across the path of a flowing fluid (ground water, surface water, wind) carrying particles in suspension, provides screening when it retains some or all soil fine particles while allowing the fluid to pass through. After some period of time, particles accumulate against the screen which requires that the screen be able to withstand pressures generated by the accumulated particles and the increasing fluid pressure.
SeparationA (S)—A geosynthetic placed between dissimilar materials so that the integrity and functioning of both materials can remain intact or be improved performs the separation function.
Surface StabilizationB (SS)—A geosynthetic, placed on a soil surface, provides surface stabilization when it restricts movement and prevents dispersion of surface soil particles subjected to erosion actions (rain, wind), often while allowing or promoting vegetative growth.
Vegetative ReinforcementB (VR)—A geosynthetic provides vegetative reinforcement when it extends the erosion control limits and performance of vegetation.
Note—during the placement of fresh concrete in a geotextile flexible form, the geosynthetic functions temporarily as a filter to allow excess water to escape.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1204 Test Method for Linear Dimensional Changes of Nonrigid Thermoplastic Sheeting or Film at Elevated Temperature
D1987 Test Method for Biological Clogging of Geotextile or Soil/Geotextile Filters
D2990 Test Methods for Tensile, Compressive, and Flexural Creep and Creep-Rupture of Plastics
D3083 Specification for Flexible Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Plastic Sheeting for Pond, Canal, and Reservoir Lining
D3895 Test Method for Oxidative-Induction Time of Polyolefins by Differential Scanning Calorimetry
D4355 Test Method for Deterioration of Geotextiles by Exposure to Light, Moisture and Heat in a Xenon Arc Type Apparatus
D4594 Test Method for Effects of Temperature on Stability of Geotextiles
D4716 Test Method for Determining the (In-plane) Flow Rate per Unit Width and Hydraulic Transmissivity of a Geosynthetic Using a Constant Head
D4886 Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Geotextiles (Sand Paper/Sliding Block Method)
D5101 Test Method for Measuring the Filtration Compatibility of Soil-Geotextile Systems
D5262 Test Method for Evaluating the Unconfined Tension Creep and Creep Rupture Behavior of Geosynthetics
D5322 Practice for Laboratory Immersion Procedures for Evaluating the Chemical Resistance of Geosynthetics to Liquids
D5397 Test Method for Evaluation of Stress Crack Resistance of Polyolefin Geomembranes Using Notched Constant Tensile Load Test
D5496 Practice for In Field Immersion Testing of Geosynthetics
D5567 Test Method for Hydraulic Conductivity Ratio (HCR) Testing of Soil/Geotextile Systems
D5885 Test Method for Oxidative Induction Time of Polyolefin Geosynthetics by High-Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry
D5970 Test Method for Deterioration of Geotextiles from Outdoor Exposure
ICS Number Code 19.020 (Test conditions and procedures in general); 59.080.70 (Geotextiles)
UNSPSC Code 30121702(Geotextile)