Significance and Use
6.1 The assumptions of the physical system are given as follows:
6.1.1 The aquifer is of uniform thickness and confined by impermeable beds above and below.
6.1.2 The aquifer is of constant homogeneous porosity and matrix compressibility and of homogeneous and isotropic hydraulic conductivity.
6.1.3 The origin of the cylindrical coordinate system is taken to be on the well-bore axis at the top of the aquifer.
6.1.4 The aquifer is fully screened.
6.2 The assumptions made in defining the momentum balance are as follows:
6.2.1 The average water velocity in the well is approximately constant over the well-bore section.
6.2.2 Flow is laminar and frictional head losses from flow across the well screen are negligible.
6.2.3 Flow through the well screen is uniformly distributed over the entire aquifer thickness.
6.2.4 Change in momentum from the water velocity changing from radial flow through the screen to vertical flow in the well are negligible.
6.2.5 The system response is an exponentially decaying sinusoidal function.
1.1 This test method covers determination of transmissivity from the measurement of the damped oscillation about the equilibrium water level of a well-aquifer system to a sudden change of water level in a well. Underdamped response of water level in a well to a sudden change in water level is characterized by oscillatory fluctuation about the static water level with a decrease in the magnitude of fluctuation and recovery to initial water level. Underdamped response may occur in wells tapping highly transmissive confined aquifers and in deep wells having long water columns.
1.2 This analytical procedure is used in conjunction with the field procedure Test Method D4044 for collection of test data.
1.3 Limitations—Slug tests are considered to provide an estimate of transmissivity of a confined aquifer. This test method requires that the storage coefficient be known. Assumptions of this test method prescribe a fully penetrating well (a well open through the full thickness of the aquifer), but the slug test method is commonly conducted using a partially penetrating well. Such a practice may be acceptable for application under conditions in which the aquifer is stratified and horizontal hydraulic conductivity is much greater than vertical hydraulic conductivity. In such a case the test would be considered to be representative of the average hydraulic conductivity of the portion of the aquifer adjacent to the open interval of the well. The method assumes laminar flow and is applicable for a slug test in which the initial water-level displacement is less than 0.1 or 0.2 of the length of the static water column.
1.4 This test method of analysis presented here is derived by van der Kamp (1) based on an approximation of the underdamped response to that of an exponentially damped sinusoid. A more rigorous analysis of the response of wells to a sudden change in water level by Kipp (2) indicates that the method presented by van der Kamp (1) matches the solution of Kipp (2) when the damping parameter values are less than about 0.2 and time greater than that of the first peak of the oscillation (2).
1.5 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method.
1.6 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D4043 Guide for Selection of Aquifer Test Method in Determining Hydraulic Properties by Well Techniques
D4044 Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug) Tests for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifers
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
aquifers; aquifer tests; control wells; groundwater; hydraulic conductivity; slug test; storage coefficient; transmissivity ;
ICS Number Code 93.160 (Hydraulic construction)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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