Significance and Use
Hollow-stem auger drilling may be used in support of geoenvironmental exploration (Practice D3550, Test Method D4428/D4428M) and for installation of subsurface water-quality monitoring devices in unconsolidated materials. Hollow-stem auger drilling may be selected over other methods based on the advantages over other methods. These advantages include: the ability to drill without the addition of drilling fluid(s) to the subsurface, and hole stability for sampling purposes (see Test Methods D1586, D1587, D2487, and D2488) and monitor-well construction in unconsolidated to poorly indurated materials. This drilling method is generally restricted to the drilling of shallow, unconsolidated materials or softer rocks. The hollow-stem drilling method is a favorable method to be used for obtaining cores and samples and for the installation of monitoring devices in many, but not all geologic environments.
Note 2—In many geologic environments the hollow-stem auger drilling method can be used for drilling, sampling, and monitoring-device installations without the addition of fluids to the borehole. However, in cases where heaving water-bearing sands or silts are encountered, the addition of water or drilling mud to the hollow-auger column may become necessary to inhibit the piping of these fluid-like materials into the augers. These drilling conditions, if encountered, should be documented.
The application of hollow-stem augers to geoenvironmental exploration may involve groundwater and soil sampling, in-situ or pore-fluid testing, or utilization of the hollow-auger column as a casing for subsequent drilling activities in unconsolidated or consolidated materials (Test Method D2113).
Note 3—The user may install a monitoring device within the same auger borehole wherein sampling or in-situ or pore-fluid testing was performed.
The hollow-stem auger column may be used as a temporary casing for installation of a subsurface water-quality monitoring device. The monitoring device is usually installed as the hollow-auger column is removed from the borehole.
The subsurface water-quality monitoring devices that are addressed in this guide consist generally of a screened or porous intake device and riser pipe(s) that are usually installed with a filter pack to enhance the longevity of the intake unit, and with isolation seals and low-permeability backfill to deter the movement of fluids or infiltration of surface water between hydrologic units penetrated by the borehole (see Practice D5092). Inasmuch as a piezometer is primarily a device used for measuring subsurface hydraulic heads, the conversion of a piezometer to a water-quality monitoring device should be made only after consideration of the overall quality and integrity of the installation, to include the quality of materials that will contact sampled water or gas.
Note 4—Both water-quality monitoring devices and piezometers should have adequate casing seals, annular isolation seals, and backfills to deter the movement of fluids between hydrologic units.
1.1 This guide covers how hollow-stem auger-drilling systems may be used for geoenvironmental exploration and installation of subsurface water-quality monitoring devices.
1.2 Hollow-stem auger drilling for geoenvironmental exploration and monitoring device installations often involves safety planning, administration, and documentation. This guide does not purport to specifically address exploration and site safety.
Note 1—This guide does not include considerations for geotechnical site that are addressed in a separate Guide.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D1452 Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
D1586 Test Method for Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
D2113 Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling of Rock for Site Investigation
D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
D4428/D4428M Test Methods for Crosshole Seismic Testing
D5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
D5092 Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells
D5099 Test Methods for Rubber--Measurement of Processing Properties Using Capillary Rheometry
D5434 Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
drilling; geoenvironmental exploration; groundwater; vadose zone: Auger borings; Direct rotary drilling; Geoenvironmental applications/exploration; Geological investigations; Ground water; Hollow-stem auger drilling; Installation--ground water/subsurface devices/applications; Subsurface investigation--soil/rock; Vadose zone monitoring;
ICS Number Code 13.060.10 (Water of natural resources)
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