Significance and Use
4.1 The application of direct air-rotary drilling to geoenvironmental exploration may involve sampling, coring, in situ or pore-fluid testing, installation of casing for subsequent drilling activities in unconsolidated or consolidated materials, and for installation of subsurface water-quality monitoring devices in unconsolidated and consolidated materials. Several advantages of using the direct air-rotary drilling method over other methods may include the ability to drill rather rapidly through consolidated materials and, in many instances, not require the introduction of drilling fluids to the borehole. Air-rotary drilling techniques are usually employed to advance drill hole when water-sensitive materials (that is, friable sandstones or collapsible soils) may preclude use of water-based rotary-drilling methods. Some disadvantages to air-rotary drilling may include poor borehole integrity in unconsolidated materials without using casing, and the possible volitization of contaminants and air-borne dust.
—Direct-air rotary drilling uses pressured air for circulation of drill cuttings. In some instances, water or foam additives, or both, may be injected into the air stream to improve cuttings-lifting capacity and cuttings return. The use of air under high pressures may cause fracturing of the formation materials or extreme erosion of the borehole if drilling pressures and techniques are not carefully maintained and monitored. If borehole damage becomes apparent, consideration to other drilling method(s) should be given.
—The user may install a monitoring device within the same borehole in which sampling, in situ or pore-fluid testing, or coring was performed.
4.2 The subsurface water-quality monitoring devices that are addressed in this guide consist generally of a screened or porous intake and riser pipe(s) that are usually installed with a filter pack to enhance the longevity of the intake unit, and with isolation seals and a low-permeability backfill to deter the movement of fluids or infiltration of surface water between hydrologic units penetrated by the borehole (see Practice D5092). Inasmuch as a piezometer is primarily a device used for measuring subsurface hydraulic heads, the conversion of a piezometer to a water-quality monitoring device should be made only after consideration of the overall quality of the installation to include the quality of materials that will contact sampled water or gas.
—Both water-quality monitoring devices and piezometers should have adequate casing seals, annular isolation seals, and backfills to deter movement of contaminants between hydrologic units.
1.1 This guide covers how direct (straight) air-rotary drilling procedures may be used for geoenvironmental exploration and installation of subsurface water-quality monitoring devices.
—The term direct with respect to the air-rotary drilling method of this guide indicates that compressed air is injected through a drill-rod column to a rotating bit. The air cools the bit and transports cuttings to the surface in the annulus between the drill-rod column and the borehole wall.
—This guide does not include considerations for geotechnical site characterizations that are addressed in a separate guide.
1.2 Direct air-rotary drilling for geoenvironmental exploration will often involve safety planning, administration, and documentation. This guide does not purport to specifically address exploration and site safety.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D420 Guide to Site Characterization for Engineering Design and Construction Purposes
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D1452 Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
D1586 Test Method for Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
D2113 Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling of Rock for Site Investigation
D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils
D4428/D4428M Test Methods for Crosshole Seismic Testing
D5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
D5092 Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells
D5099 Test Methods for Rubber--Measurement of Processing Properties Using Capillary Rheometry
D5434 Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
air-rotary drilling method; drilling; geoenvironmental exploration; groundwater; vadose zone ;
ICS Number Code 73.100.30 (Equipment for drilling and mine excavation)
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