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Significance and Use
4.1 These test methods cover, in single procedures, the determination of Ni, V, and Fe in crude oils and residual oils. These test methods complement Test Method D1548, which covers only the determination of vanadium.
4.2 When fuels are combusted, vanadium present in the fuel can form corrosive compounds. The value of crude oils can be determined, in part, by the concentrations of nickel, vanadium, and iron. Nickel and vanadium, present at trace levels in petroleum fractions, can deactivate catalysts during processing. These test methods provide a means of determining the concentrations of nickel, vanadium, and iron.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of nickel, vanadium, and iron in crude oils and residual fuels by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry. Two different test methods are presented.
1.2 Test Method A (Sections 7-11 and 18-22)—ICP is used to analyze a sample dissolved in an organic solvent. This test method uses oil-soluble metals for calibration and does not purport to quantitatively determine or detect insoluble particulates.
1.4 The concentration ranges covered by these test methods are determined by the sensitivity of the instruments, the amount of sample taken for analysis, and the dilution volume. A specific statement is given in 15.2. Typically, the low concentration limits are a few tenths of a mg/kg. Precision data are provided for the concentration ranges specified in Section 21.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D1548 Test Method for Vanadium in Heavy Fuel Oil1
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D5185 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements, Wear Metals, and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils and Determination of Selected Elements in Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
D6299 Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance
D7260 Practice for Optimization, Calibration, and Validation of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) for Elemental Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants
ICS Number Code 75.040 (Crude petroleum); 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
UNSPSC Code 15101508(Crude oil)