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Significance and Use
This test method is to be used for measuring the hydraulic conductivity of water-saturated soil/geotextile systems.
This test method is to be used as a design performance test, or as a comparative tool for evaluating the filtration behavior of soils with geotextiles. This test method is not intended for routine (index-style) testing, since the results will depend on the specific soil and hydraulic conditions that are evaluated. It is not appropriate to use the test results for job specifications or manufacturers' certifications.
This test method applies to the permeation of porous materials with water. Permeation with other liquids, such as chemical wastes, can be accomplished using procedures similar to those described in this test method. However, this test method is intended to be used only when water is the permeant liquid.
The mathematical concepts (primarily Darcy's law) used in this test method were originally developed for one-dimensional, laminar flow of water within porous materials, which is often the case with soil and geotextiles. When flow conditions are laminar and one-dimensional, the hydraulic conductivity is unaffected by hydraulic gradient. However, when flow occurs through some soil/geotextile systems, a change in hydraulic gradient could cause movement of soil particles, thereby changing the structure of the test specimen and hence changing the hydraulic conductivity of the soil/geotextile system. The mathematical expressions given by Darcy's law are still appropriate for application to this situation; however, it is therefore imperative that the hydraulic gradient be controlled carefully in the HCR test to simulate field conditions.
This test method provides a means of determining hydraulic conductivity at a controlled level of effective stress. Hydraulic conductivity varies with void ratio, which in turn varies with effective stress. The hydraulic conductivity of the test specimen will probably change if the void ratio is changed. It is therefore imperative that the effective stress (that is, the effective confining pressure) be controlled carefully in the HCR test to simulate field conditions.
1.1 This test method covers laboratory measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of water-saturated porous materials with a flexible-wall permeameter.
1.2 This test method may be used with undisturbed or compacted soil specimens that have a hydraulic conductivity less than or equal to 5 × 10−2 cm/s.
1.3 The filtration behavior of soils with hydraulic conductivities greater than 5 × 10−2 cm/s may be determined by the gradient ratio test (Test Method D5101).
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard, although other units are provided for information and clarification purposes.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D422 Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D698 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer
D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
D4220 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
D4318 Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
D4354 Practice for Sampling of Geosynthetics for Testing
D4439 Terminology for Geosynthetics
D4491 Test Methods for Water Permeability of Geotextiles by Permittivity
D4647 Test Method for Identification and Classification of Dispersive Clay Soils by the Pinhole Test
D4751 Test Method for Determining Apparent Opening Size of a Geotextile
D5084 Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
D5101 Test Method for Measuring the Soil-Geotextile System Clogging Potential by the Gradient Ratio
ICS Number Code 59.080.70 (Geotextiles)
UNSPSC Code 11111501(Soil); 30121702(Geotextile)