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This guide covers three levels of physical product standards (preparation, maintenance, and distribution) for color or geometric appearance, or both, of coatings commonly used in the coatings industry. Described here is terminology to describe each level, and techniques for generating and caring for standards. Product standards are the only standards by which products should be accepted or rejected for color or appearance. A master standard is generated from the concept color submitted by the customer. Duplicate master standards, when needed, are generated from the master standard. Working standards are generated from a duplicate master standard. They are used in the laboratory or on the production line to accept or reject the color or appearance of coatings. After initial generation, product standards must be maintained to ensure they remain valid. This guide considers the characteristics of product standards, factors to be considered in their creation, and factors to be considered in their replacement.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
Significance and Use
High quality physical product standards for color or appearance are the keystone of a successful color control program. Standards are often grouped into three major categories: product standards, intermediate production control standards, and instrument standards. This guide deals only with physical product standards. Some instrument-based color control programs use “numerical standards,” derived from instrumental measurements of a physical product standard.
1.1 This guide covers three levels of physical product standards for color or appearance, or both, commonly used in the coatings industry, provides terminology to describe each level, and describes techniques for generating and caring for standards.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
Society of Automotive Engineers StandardSAEJ1545 Recommended Practice for Instrumental Color Difference Measurement for Exterior Finishes, Textiles, and Colored Trim Available from Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001, http://www.sae.org.
D16 Terminology for Paint, Related Coatings, Materials, and Applications
D523 Test Method for Specular Gloss
D823 Practices for Producing Films of Uniform Thickness of Paint, Varnish, and Related Products on Test Panels
D1729 Practice for Visual Appraisal of Colors and Color Differences of Diffusely-Illuminated Opaque Materials
D2244 Practice for Calculation of Color Tolerances and Color Differences from Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates
D3134 Practice for Establishing Color and Gloss Tolerances
D4086 Practice for Visual Evaluation of Metamerism
D4449 Test Method for Visual Evaluation of Gloss Differences Between Surfaces of Similar Appearance
E284 Terminology of Appearance
E308 Practice for Computing the Colors of Objects by Using the CIE System
E430 Test Methods for Measurement of Gloss of High-Gloss Surfaces by Abridged Goniophotometry
E805 Practice for Identification of Instrumental Methods of Color or Color-Difference Measurement of Materials
E1164 Practice for Obtaining Spectrometric Data for Object-Color Evaluation
E1331 Test Method for Reflectance Factor and Color by Spectrophotometry Using Hemispherical Geometry
E1345 Practice for Reducing the Effect of Variability of Color Measurement by Use of Multiple Measurements
E1347 Test Method for Color and Color-Difference Measurement by Tristimulus Colorimetry
E1349 Test Method for Reflectance Factor and Color by Spectrophotometry Using Bidirectional (45:0 or 0:45) Geometry
ICS Number Code 87.020 (Paint coating processes)
ASTM D5531-05(2011), Standard Guide for Preparation, Maintenance, and Distribution of Physical Product Standards for Color and Geometric Appearance of Coatings, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.orgBack to Top