ASTM D5434 - 12

    Standard Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock

    Active Standard ASTM D5434 | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.08


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    Significance and Use

    The preparation of field logs provides documentation of field exploration procedures and findings for geotechnical, geologic, hydrogeologic, and other investigations of subsurface site conditions. This guide may be used for a broad range of investigations.

    The recorded information in a field log will depend on the specific purpose of the site investigation. All of the information given in this guide need not appear in all field logs.

    Note 1—The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective sampling. Users of this practice are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide describes the type of information that should be recorded during field subsurface explorations in soil and rock.

    1.2 This guide is not intended to specify all of the information required for preparing field logs. Such requirements will vary depending on the purpose of the investigation, the intended use of the field log, and particular needs of the client or user.

    1.3 This guide is applicable to boreholes, auger holes, excavated pits, or other subsurface exposures such as road side cuts or stream banks. This guide may serve as a supplement to Guide D420.

    1.4 This guide may not be suited to all types of subsurface exploration such as mining, agricultural, geologic hazardous waste, or other special types of exploration.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.6 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care of which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word Standard in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D420 Guide to Site Characterization for Engineering Design and Construction Purposes

    D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids

    D1452 Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings

    D1586 Test Method for Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils

    D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes

    D2113 Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling of Rock for Site Investigation

    D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

    D2573 Test Method for Field Vane Shear Test in Cohesive Soil

    D3441 Test Method for Mechanical Cone Penetration Tests of Soil

    D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils

    D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction

    D4083 Practice for Description of Frozen Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

    D4220 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples

    D4403 Practice for Extensometers Used in Rock

    D4544 Practice for Estimating Peat Deposit Thickness

    D4623 Test Method for Determination of In Situ Stress in Rock Mass by Overcoring Method--USBM Borehole Deformation Gauge

    D4633 Test Method for Energy Measurement for Dynamic Penetrometers

    D4645 Test Method for Determination of In-Situ Stress in Rock Using Hydraulic Fracturing Method

    D4719 Test Methods for Prebored Pressuremeter Testing in Soils

    D4750 Test Method for Determining Subsurface Liquid Levels in a Borehole or Monitoring Well (Observation Well)

    D4879 Guide for Geotechnical Mapping of Large Underground Openings in Rock

    D5079 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Rock Core Samples

    D6032 Test Method for Determining Rock Quality Designation (RQD) of Rock Core


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.080.01 (Soil quality in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 11111501(Soil); 81151902(Geophysical exploration)


    DOI: 10.1520/D5434-12

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