Significance and Use
This test method is useful for characterization and rapid quantification of PAH mixtures including petroleum oils, fuels, creosotes, and industrial organic mixtures, either waterborne or obtained from tanks.
The unknown PAH mixture is first characterized by its fluorescence emission and synchronous scanning spectra. Then a suitable site-specific calibration standard with similar spectral characteristics is selected as described in Annex A1. This calibration standard may also be well-characterized by other independent methods such as gas chromatography (GC), GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Some suggested independent analytical methods are included in References (1–7) and Test Method D4657. Other analytical methods can be substituted by an experienced analyst depending on the intended data quality objectives. Peak maxima intensities of appropriate fluorescence emission spectra are then used to set up suitable calibration curves as a function of concentration. Further discussion of fluorescence techniques as applied to the characterization and quantification of PAHs and petroleum oils can be found in References (8–18).
For the purpose of the present test method polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are defined to include substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with functional groups such as carboxyl acid, hydroxy, carbonyl and amino groups, and heterocycles giving similar fluorescence responses to PAHs of similar molecular weight ranges. If PAHs in the more classic definition, that is, unsubstituted PAHs, are desired, chemical reactions, extractions, or chromatographic procedures may be required to eliminate these other components. Fortunately, for the most commonly expected PAH mixtures, such substituted PAHs and heterocycles are not major components of the mixtures and do not cause serious errors.
1.1 This test method covers a means for quantifying or characterizing total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by fluorescence spectroscopy (Fl) for waterborne samples. The characterization step is for the purpose of finding an appropriate calibration standard with similiar emission and synchronous fluorescence spectra.
1.2 This test method is applicable to PAHs resulting from petroleum oils, fuel oils, creosotes, or industrial organic mixtures. Samples can be weathered or unweathered, but either the same material or appropriately characterized site-specific PAH or petroleum oil calibration standards with similar fluorescence spectra should be chosen. The degree of spectral similarity needed will depend on the desired level of quantification and on the required data quality objectives.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D2777 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias of Applicable Test Methods of Committee D19 on Water
D3325 Practice for Preservation of Waterborne Oil Samples
D3326 Practice for Preparation of Samples for Identification of Waterborne Oils
D3415 Practice for Identification of Waterborne Oils
D3650 Test Method for Comparison of Waterborne Petroleum Oils By Fluorescence Analysis
D4489 Practices for Sampling of Waterborne Oils
D4657 Test Method for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water
E131 Terminology Relating to Molecular Spectroscopy
E169 Practices for General Techniques of Ultraviolet-Visible Quantitative Analysis
E275 Practice for Describing and Measuring Performance of Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrophotometers
E388 Test Method for Wavelength Accuracy and Spectral Bandwidth of Fluorescence Spectrometers
E578 Test Method for Linearity of Fluorescence Measuring Systems
E579 Test Method for Limit of Detection of Fluorescence of Quinine Sulfate in Solution
creosotes; fluorescence; fuel oils; oil characterization; oil classification; oil quantification; PAH quantification; PAHs; petroleum oils; synchronous fluorescence; ultraviolet-visible fluorescence; Aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs); Classification; Creosote; Fluorescence--water analysis; Fluorescence spectrochemical analysis; Fuel oils; Oil classification; Oil identification; Petroleum oils; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); Synchronous fluorescence; Ultraviolet (UV) spectrochemical analysis;
ICS Number Code 13.060.50 (Examination of water for chemical substances)
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