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Significance and Use
Data at groundwater sites are gathered for many purposes. Each of these purposes generally requires a specific set of data elements. For example, when the groundwater quality is of concern not only are the minimum set of data elements required for the site, but information concerning the sample collection depth interval, method of collection, and date and time of collection are needed to fully qualify the data. Another group of elements are recommended for each use of the data, such as aquifer characteristics or water-level records. Normally the more information that is gathered about a site by field personnel, the easier it is to understand the groundwater conditions and to reach valid conclusions and interpretations regarding the site.
Note 6—Some important data elements may change during the existence of a site. For example, the elevation of the measuring point used for the measurement of water levels may be modified because of repair or replacement of equipment. This frequently occurs when the measuring point is an opening in the pump and the pump is modified or replaced. Because changes cannot always be anticipated. It is preferable to reference the height of the measuring point to a nearby, permanent altitude datum. The measuring point is referenced by being the same altitude (zero correction) or above (negative correction) or below (plus correction) the altitude datum. All appropriate measurements should be corrected in reference to the altitude datum before entry into the permanent file. Care must be exercised to keep the relationship of these data elements consistent throughout the duration of the site.
Some data elements have an extensive list of components or possible entries. For example the aquifer identification list described in Guide D5409 has over 5000 entries. Lengthy lists of possible entries are not included in this guide, however, information on where to obtain these components is included with the specific data element.
Note 7—This guide identifies sources, lists, etc. of information required to completely document information about any groundwater site.
1.1 This guide is Part Three of three guides to be used in conjunction with Practice D5254 that delineates the data desirable to describe a groundwater data collection or sampling site. This guide identifies usage descriptors, such as monitoring, for an individual groundwater site. Guide D5408 describes additional information beyond the minimum set of data elements that may be specified to identify a groundwater site, while Guide D5409 identifies physical descriptors, such as construction, for a site.
Note 1—A groundwater site is defined as any source, location, or sampling station capable of producing water or hydrologic data from a natural stratum from below the surface of the earth. A source or facility can include a well, spring or seep, and drain or tunnel (nearly horizontal in orientation). Other sources, such as excavations, driven devices, boreholes, ponds, lakes, and sinkholes, that can be shown to be hydraulically connected to the groundwater, are appropriate for the use intended.
Note 2—Guide D5408 includes data confidence classification descriptor (1 element), geographic location descriptors (4 elements), political regime descriptor (1 element), source identifier descriptors (4 elements), legal descriptors (9 elements), owner descriptors (2 elements), site visit descriptors (3 elements), other identification descriptors (2 elements), other data descriptors (3 elements), and remarks descriptors (3 elements). Guide D5409 includes individual site characteristics (7 data elements), construction descriptors (56 data elements), lift descriptors (16 data elements), geologic descriptors (26 data elements), hydraulic descriptors (20 data elements), and spring descriptors (11 data elements). For a list of descriptors in this guide, see Section 3.
1.2 These data elements are described in terms used by groundwater hydrologists. Standard references, such as Ref (1) and various hydrogeologic professional publications, are used to determine these definitions. Many of the suggested elements and their representative codes are those established by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey and used in the National Water Information Systems computerized data base (1-21).
Note 3—The purpose of this guide is to suggest data elements that can be collected for groundwater sites. This does not uniquely imply a computer data base, but rather data elements for entry into any type of permanent file.
Note 4—Component and code lists given with some of the data elements, for example“ method of discharge measurement,” are only suggestions. These lists can be modified, expanded, or reduced for the purpose intended by the company or agency maintaining the groundwater data file.
Note 5—Use of trade names in this guide is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by ASTM.
1.3 This guide includes the data elements desirable to document a groundwater site beyond those given in the minimum set of data elements. Some examples of the data elements are water level, discharge, and water-quality sample collection date. No single site will need every data element, for example, a monitoring site may not need a long-term water use record. Each record (group of data elements) for a site has mandatory data elements, such as the date for the water level record. However, these elements are considered necessary only when that specific record is gathered for the site.
1.4 The values stated in both inch-pound and SI units are to be regarded separately as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.6 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D5254 Practice for Minimum Set of Data Elements to Identify a Ground-Water Site
D5408 Guide for Set of Data Elements to Describe a Groundwater Site; Part One--Additional Identification Descriptors
D5409 Guide for Set of Data Elements to Describe a Ground-Water Site; Part Two--Physical Descriptors
ICS Number Code 13.060.10 (Water of natural resources)