Active Standard ASTM D5357 | Developed by Subcommittee: D32.05
Book of Standards Volume: 05.05
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
Zeolite NaA has been used as an active component in molecular sieves employed as desiccants for natural gas, process gas streams, sealed insulated windows, and as a builder (water softener) in household laundry detergents.
This X-ray procedure is designed to allow a reporting of the relative degree of crystallization of NaA in the manufacture of NaA. The relative crystallinity number has proven useful in technology, research, and specifications.
Drastic changes in intensity of individual peaks in the XRD pattern of NaA can result from changes in distribution of electron density within the unit cell of the NaA zeolite. The electron density distribution is dependent upon the extent of filling of pores in the zeolite with guest molecules, and on the nature of the guest molecules. In this XRD method, the guest molecule H2O completely fills the pores. Intensity changes may also result if some or all of the sodium cations in NaA are exchanged by other cations.
Drastic changes in overall intensity can result from changes in X-ray absorption attributed to non-crystalline phases, if present, in a NaA sample. If non-zeolite crystalline phases are present, their diffraction peaks may overlap with some of the NaA diffraction peaks selected for this test method. If there is reason to suspect the presence of such components, then NaA peaks free of interference should be chosen for analysis.
1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the relative crystallinity of zeolite sodium A (zeolite NaA) using selected peaks from the X-ray diffraction pattern of the zeolite.
1.2 The term “intensity of an X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) peak” refers to the “integral intensity,” either the area or counts under the peak or the product of the peak height and the peak width at half height.
1.3 This test method provides a number that is the ratio of intensity of portions of the XRD pattern of the sample to intensity of the corresponding portion of the pattern of a reference zeolite NaA. The intensity ratio, expressed as a percentage, is then labeled relative crystallinity of NaA.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D3906 Test Method for Determination of Relative X-ray Diffraction Intensities of Faujasite-Type Zeolite-Containing Materials
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
ICS Number Code 71.040.30 (Chemical reagents)