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Significance and Use
5.1 A colorant sometimes fails to disperse completely in a base paint due to poor compatibility, which can be the fault of the colorant, the paint, or both. This will result in poor color development, which is readily manifested by the common procedure of applying the paint with a doctor blade and subjecting the drawdown to high shear stress by finger-rubbing a small area of the partially dry film. This tends to disperse undeveloped colorant, if any, and produces a color variation between the unsheared and sheared areas of the paint film. The variation can be measured colorimetrically to give a numerical color difference value that is a measure of the color development of the original paint, the smaller the difference the better the color development and vice versa. Color difference values obtained by finger-rubbing were found to vary widely for the same as well as among different operators. This test method establishes a controlled shear-stress procedure analogous to the finger rub-up test, but with far better reproducibility.
5.2 Poor color development can be a problem in the production of paints, and in their performance in the field. In production it causes a loss of colorant monetary value, and unpredictable tinting results. In field performance it results in color variations in the applied paint film due to the varying shear forces to which the paint is subjected at different stages or by different modes of application.
5.3 Although poor color development is primarily and most often related to the colorant portion of a tinted paint, the white pigment in the base paint can also be poorly developed due to flocculation or other causes. In the latter case, shear dispersion can make the paint film lighter and less colorful, rather than the reverse. Then too, the colorant and the white might both be poorly developed, and the color change due to shear stress would then be the combined effect of both.
1.1 This test method covers a procedure for measuring color development in tinted latex paints, for the purpose of determining the efficiency of colorants, the tintability of base paints and the potential for poor color uniformity of applied paint films.
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D16 Terminology for Paint, Related Coatings, Materials, and Applications
D2244 Practice for Calculation of Color Tolerances and Color Differences from Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates
D3924 Specification for Environment for Conditioning and Testing Paint, Varnish, Lacquer, and Related Materials
D3925 Practice for Sampling Liquid Paints and Related Pigmented Coatings
E284 Terminology of Appearance
E1164 Practice for Obtaining Spectrometric Data for Object-Color Evaluation
E1331 Test Method for Reflectance Factor and Color by Spectrophotometry Using Hemispherical Geometry
E1345 Practice for Reducing the Effect of Variability of Color Measurement by Use of Multiple Measurements
E1347 Test Method for Color and Color-Difference Measurement by Tristimulus Colorimetry
E1349 Test Method for Reflectance Factor and Color by Spectrophotometry Using Bidirectional (45:0 or 0:45) Geometry
ICS Number Code 87.040 (Paints and varnishes)
UNSPSC Code 31211506(Latex paints)