Active Standard ASTM D5291 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.03
Book of Standards Volume: 05.02
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
This is the first ASTM standard covering the simultaneous determination of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen in petroleum products and lubricants.
Carbon, hydrogen, and particularly nitrogen analyses are useful in determining the complex nature of sample types covered by this test method. The CHN results can be used to estimate the processing and refining potentials and yields in the petrochemical industry.
The concentration of nitrogen is a measure of the presence of nitrogen containing additives. Knowledge of its concentration can be used to predict performance. Some petroleum products also contain naturally occurring nitrogen. Knowledge of hydrogen content in samples is helpful in addressing their performance characteristics. Hydrogen to carbon ratio is useful to assess the performance of upgrading processes.
1.1 These test methods cover the instrumental determination of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen in laboratory samples of petroleum products and lubricants. Values obtained represent the total carbon, the total hydrogen, and the total nitrogen.
1.2 These test methods are applicable to samples such as crude oils, fuel oils, additives, and residues for carbon and hydrogen and nitrogen analysis. These test methods were tested in the concentration range of at least 75 to 87 mass % for carbon, at least 9 to 16 mass % for hydrogen, and <0.1 to 2 mass % for nitrogen.
1.3 The nitrogen test method is not applicable to light materials or those containing <0.75 mass % nitrogen, or both, such as gasoline, jet fuel, naphtha, diesel fuel, or chemical solvents.
1.3.1 However, using Test Method D levels of 0.1 mass% nitrogen in lubricants could be determined.
1.4 These test methods are not recommended for the analysis of volatile materials such as gasoline, gasoline-oxygenate blends, or gasoline type aviation turbine fuels.
1.5 The results of these tests can be expressed as mass % carbon, hydrogen or nitrogen.
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D6299 Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance
ICS Number Code 75.080 (Petroleum products in general); 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)