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Significance and Use
5.1 This test method is one of a number of tests conducted on heavy hydrocarbon mixtures to characterize these materials for a refiner or a purchaser. It provides an estimate of the yields of fractions of various boiling ranges.
5.5 This is a complex procedure involving many interacting variables. It is most important that at the time of first use of a new apparatus, its components be checked as detailed in Annex A1 and Annex A2 and that the location of the vapor temperature sensor be verified as detailed in 6.5.3 and Fig. 1.
1.1 This test method covers the procedure for distillation of heavy hydrocarbon mixtures having initial boiling points greater than 150°C (300°F), such as heavy crude oils, petroleum distillates, residues, and synthetic mixtures. It employs a potstill with a low pressure drop entrainment separator operated under total takeoff conditions. Distillation conditions and equipment performance criteria are specified and typical apparatus is illustrated.
1.2 This test method details the procedures for the production of distillate fractions of standardized quality in the gas oil and lubricating oil range as well as the production of standard residue. In addition, it provides for the determination of standard distillation curves to the highest atmospheric equivalent temperature possible by conventional distillation.
1.3 The maximum achievable atmospheric equivalent temperature (AET) is dependent upon the heat tolerance of the charge. For most samples, a temperature up to 565°C (1050°F) can be attained. This maximum will be significantly lower for heat sensitive samples (for example, heavy residues) and might be somewhat higher for nonheat sensitive samples.
1.4 The recommended distillation method for crude oils up to cutpoint 400°C (752°F) AET is Test Method D2892. This test method can be used for heavy crude oils with initial boiling points greater than 150°C (302°F). However, distillation curves and fraction qualities obtained by these methods are not comparable.
1.5.1 Annex A1—Test Method for Determination of Temperature Response Time,
1.5.2 Annex A2—Practice for Calibration of Sensors,
1.5.3 Annex A3—Test Method for Dehydration of a Wet Sample of Oil,
1.5.4 Annex A4—Practice for Conversion of Observed Vapor Temperature to Atmospheric Equivalent Temperature (AET), and
1.5.5 Annex A5—Test Method for Determination of Wettage.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warnings, see 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199, 6.9.3, 9.5, 9.7, and A188.8.131.52.
1.8 WARNING—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA’s website—http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm—for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products into your state or country may be prohibited by law.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D941 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer
D1217 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Bingham Pycnometer
D1250 Guide for Use of the Petroleum Measurement Tables
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D1480 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Bingham Pycnometer
D2892 Test Method for Distillation of Crude Petroleum (15-Theoretical Plate Column)
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D5002 Test Method for Density and Relative Density of Crude Oils by Digital Density Analyzer
ICS Number Code 71.080.01 (Organic chemicals in general)
UNSPSC Code 15101500(Petroleum and distillates)