ASTM D5201 - 05a(2014)

    Standard Practice for Calculating Formulation Physical Constants of Paints and Coatings

    Active Standard ASTM D5201 | Developed by Subcommittee: D01.24

    Book of Standards Volume: 06.01


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 Physical constants of paints and coatings are required in all aspects of their formulation, manufacture and use. This practice demonstrates standard methods agreed upon for calculating formulation values for some of these physical constants. The calculations are the same for either metric or inch/pound units.

    4.2 These formula values may not be used to replace measured values required by government regulations unless specifically stated in the governing documents.

    4.3 Some regulations allow compliance determination using formulation data instead of analytical data. This formulation data may not yield the same results as the required analytical method, which could be performed on a sample from any production batch of the coating. In these cases, the user may wish to compare formulation data to analytical data and develop a factor that adjusts for variability of raw materials, variability of production batches, cure volatiles, and variability of the analytical methods.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice covers procedures commonly used in the paint industry to formulate paints and coating materials. It describes procedures for calculating formulation values for weight solids, volume solids, solvent content, volatile organic compound (VOC) content, hazardous air pollutant (HAP) content, and density of liquid paints and coatings. These values are calculated from basic formulation data. These calculations may be related to either as-supplied (unreduced) or as-applied (reduced) coating materials, including multicomponent types.

    1.2 These calculated, formulation-based values may or may not be acceptable for VOC regulatory purposes, depending on the specific wording of the applicable regulation. Some regulations require analysis of the coating. Some rules allow the use of formulation data, however, some adjustments may be needed to the values calculated in this practice before they are used for regulatory purposes (see 4.3).

    1.3 For purposes of this practice, it is assumed that volatile components evaporate and the materials that remain are identified as coating solids. For example, solvents are normally used to adjust viscosity for application and appearance of the coating. Other liquid materials, such as plasticizers, reactive diluents, etc., that are expected to be retained in the dried film to affect the final physical properties should be classified as part of the coating solids. Standards such as Test Methods D2369, D4758, D5403 and Guide D2832 may be used to determine volatile or nonvolatile content of specific components. For purposes of this practice it is assumed that the blended formulation behaves as an ideal solution with no volume change on mixing (see 6.2).

    1.4 Volatile by-products of cross-linking reactions (cure volatiles) are not considered in these calculations since the object of this practice is to define paint physical constants based on formulation information. Variations in raw materials, variations in the production processes, test methods, and test method accuracy are not taken into account in these calculations.

    1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. However, they may be readily converted into SI units, if required by the user (for example, see Note 4).


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D153 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Pigments

    D1475 Test Method For Density of Liquid Coatings, Inks, and Related Products

    D2369 Test Method for Volatile Content of Coatings

    D2832 Guide for Determining Volatile and Nonvolatile Content of Paint and Related Coatings

    D3960 Practice for Determining Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content of Paints and Related Coatings

    D4758 Test Method for Nonvolatile Content of Latexes

    D5403 Test Methods for Volatile Content of Radiation Curable Materials

    E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Documents

    EPA450/3-88-018 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Protocol for Determining the Daily Volatile Organic Compound Emission Rate of Automobile and Light Duty Truck Topcoat Operations Available from U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents, 732 N. Capitol St., NW, Mail Stop: SDE, Washington, DC 20401, http://www.access.gpo.gov. Refer to EPA 450/3-88-018 dated December 1988. This protocol makes reference to the paint formulation physical constants for VOC and volume solids content.


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 87.040 (Paints and varnishes)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 46181533(Protective coats); 31211500(Paints and primers)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/D5201-05AR14

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM D5201-05a(2014), Standard Practice for Calculating Formulation Physical Constants of Paints and Coatings, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014, www.astm.org

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