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Significance and Use
4.1 This test method is useful as a rapid, nondestructive technique for the calculation of the in-place density of soil and rock at desired depths below the surface as opposed to surface measurements in accordance with Test Method .
4.2 This test method is useful for informational and research purposes. It should only be used for quality control and acceptance testing when correlated to other accepted methods such as Test Method .
4.3 The non-destructive nature of the test method allows repetitive measurements to be made at a single test location for statistical analysis and to monitor changes over time.
4.4 The fundamental assumptions inherent in this test method are that Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are the dominant interactions of the gamma rays with the material under test.
Note 1: The quality of the result produced by this standard test method is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection, and the like. Users of this test method are cautioned that compliance with Practice does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.
1.1 This test method covers the calculation of the density of soil and rock by the attenuation of gamma radiation, where the gamma source and the gamma detector are placed at the desired depth in a bored hole lined by an access tube.
1.1.1 For limitations see Section on Interference.
1.2 The density, in mass per unit volume of the material under test, is calculated by comparing the detected rate of gamma radiation with previously established calibration data (see ).
1.3 A precision statement has not been developed for this standard at this time. Therefore, this standard should not be used for acceptance or rejection of a material for purchasing purposes unless correlated to other accepted ASTM standards.
1.4 Units—The values stated in SI units are regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only and may be approximate.
1.5 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guide for significant digits and rounding established in Practice .
1.5.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected, recorded, and calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Section , “Hazards.”
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D1452 Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes
D2113 Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling of Rock for Site Investigation
D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
D2937 Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4428/D4428M Test Methods for Crosshole Seismic Testing
D5220 Test Method for Water Mass per Unit Volume of Soil and Rock In-Place by the Neutron Depth Probe Method
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
D6938 Test Method for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)
UNSPSC Code 11111501(Soil); 41114000(Rock and strata measuring equipment)